Psychosocial Essay

2659 WordsApr 30, 201211 Pages
PSYCHO-SOCIAL ASPECTS OF HEALTH INTRODUCTION The purpose of this essay is to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of both psychological and sociological factors that may impact on the patient/client and also relate to psychological and sociological theories and National Policies. The real name of the client has been changed to protect the patients confidentiality (Nursing and Midwifery Council 2008) NMC. The patient I will be discussing is Mark, a 42 year old man who has worked for a construction company for the past 20 years. Mark is married and has three children ages 3, 4, and 8. Following an incident at home in which Mark fell 15 feet off a roof, he has had persistent chronic lower back pain. Two surgeries over the past 12…show more content…
It was thought that there was a simple casual connection between pain and its rein-forcers. The respondent acute pain was seen as a reflexive response to antecedent stimulus and the respondent pain may eventually evolve into operant and persisting pain if the environment offers pain contingent reinforcements. According to Gamsa (1994), pain behaviour may also be learned by observing “pain models” i.e. individuals who exhibit such behaviour or more complex factors such as personal dynamics, emotional state, physical vulnerability and numerous psycho-social variables that have not been addressed. Fordyce et al (1968) proposed that operant pain persisted because of the behaviour of others (family, friends and healthcare providers) during the acute pain stage, which reinforced the pain to return secondary gains, such as permission to avoid chores or obtain otherwise unobtainable attention and care. The relation between the Behaviourist theory and my client is, the stimulus may be the intake of analgesia (pain relief) and associating that with being pain free, feeling more comfortable, being less irritable and having a better concentration level every time he consumes some. This in turn can activate the response (being pain free) from the stimulus (intake of analgesia). However, if the analgesia were to be eliminated, he may associate that with more pain, discomfort and irritability etc. Hubplace (2010) mentioned that
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