Public Health Impact on the Control of Malaria in Sub - Saharan Africa

3366 Words Jun 27th, 2012 14 Pages
PUBLIC HEALTH IMPACT ON THE CONTROL OF MALARIA IN SUB - SAHARAN AFRICA
The prevalence of malaria in sub Saharan Africa remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the continent. The epidemic possesses a major threat to the economic development and public health. The Sub-Saharan Africa as a geographical term refers to the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara, majority of the countries lie along the tropics thus allowing a favourable climatic condition for the survival and reproduction of the vector of this killer disease.
The pandemic outbreak of malaria several decades ago, before the advent of the Millennium development goals (MDGs), claimed so much lives in Africa. This was greatly influenced by
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(References needed 2012). All these non-human factors contribute greatly to the survival and thriving of mosquito and a corresponding rise in the prevalence of morbidity and mortality of malaria in sub Saharan Africa.
PATHOGENESIS
For effective control and prevention strategy of malaria, there is a need to understand the pathogenesis of the parasite (mechanisms for parasite invasion and host defence). There are four human malaria parasites; Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium ovale. However, the plasmodium falciparum is the most common across much of Sub-Saharan Africa. It accounts for all the malaria mortality in sub Saharan Africa and also over 90% of the global Plasmodium falciparum burden. (Joy et al. 2003).
The life cycle of Plasmodium parasites and targets for intervention
The human host is infected with the plasmodium parasite by the bite of an infected Anopheles. Motile forms of the parasite called sporozites are ingested into the blood stream and find their way to the liver where they invade the main liver cells (hepatocytes). This stage last for about 5 -16 days, without any form of symptoms with each sporozite multiplying into tens of thousands of merozoites per liver cells that…