With the ever increasing surge of digital communications and transactions, a tougher level of security is essential in order to safeguard the user and their data transactions. Systems, personal computers, mobile phones, servers, and even smart cards are all being used everywhere and there is a need to secure communications. With the influx of data management, there is a clear race between the two challengers in the game known as Information Security between developers and the hackers. PKI was designed to influence the Internet infrastructure for means of communication (Samuelle, 2011). While decreasing antagonistic misuse of data, reducing data theft, and providing an extra layer of trust through key pairs and
We can say that the weakness of the keys and the process of incorrect use, as well as erroneous implementation cannot be considered as a unique case because it represents a common risk for each encryption algorithms .
This paper will discuss probabilistic, coercion-resistant electoral systems and explain the POkerface system while mentioning other related systems and topics as well. It is a specific example of secure multi-party computing. It uses probabilistic encryption meaning that it employs the use of randomness that provides increased security. It is additionally zero-knowledge, which entails verifiability without any information leakage. This system is an application of these subjects of cryptography to an electoral system that promises security while maintaining a simple process. Analyzing recent electoral systems, this research focuses on the end-to-end verifiability, coercion resistance, and remote voting. This means that voters have proof that they voted but not their preference, thus disabling them from proving to a coercer what he/she voted for. This is a very relevant field to be researching with recent presidential elections where tensions and controversy are exceptionally high.
The next breakthrough in the encryption history happened in 1500BC in Assyria. Intaglio was used by Assyrian merchants to identify themselves in their business transactions. Intaglio is a piece or flat stone or gem that has some sort of pattern, designs or writing engraved on its surface that uniquely identify its owner. The idea of intaglio is very brilliant and people around the world started to use intaglio in their trade businesses and even as a popular form of identifications in any written documents in human history until the past century. In fact, the concept of Intaglio is so good that modern technology created digital signature based on it. Following, there were many other significant inventions and progresses in the cryptography history: Skytales by Greeks, long leather strips that wrapped around when the person writes and reads; Nomenclator, manipulations of alphabets and etc.
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a popular encryption and authentication approach used by both small businesses and large enterprises for exchanging information based on, it make securely exchange data over networks such as the Internet and verify the identity of the other party. The foundation of a PKI is the certificate authority (CA), which issues digital certificates that authenticate the identity of organizations and individuals over a public system such as the Internet, and the certificates also used to sign messages, ensures messages are not been tampered.
In Public Key Cryptosystem there are two keys used i.e. a public key and a private key. Consider an example of Alice and Bob. I Bob wants to send a message to Alice, Bob uses Alice’s public key to encrypt the message and then send that encrypted message to Alice. Alice uses her private key to decrypt the message. Here how does Bob know the Public Key of Alice? Alice might have distributed its Public key through a secure communication channel. This method is applicable only if there is trust/familiarity between both Bob and Alice. If Bob and Alice does not know each other this whole method fails.
The oldest cryptography model, where the key,the element that gives access to the hidden message exchanged between sender and recipient is equal (symmetric) for both of them and should remain secret (private). Typically, this key is represented by a password, used by both the sender to encrypt the message and the recipient to decrypt it.
In this paper we will present you a brief summary of recent attacks on Elliptic Curve Cryptography and countermeasure of these attacks. We will introduce only attacks which have been either performed practically or there is proof of concept of these attacks. We will not introduce any new attack on Elliptic Curve Cryptography. There is no perfect countermeasure against these attacks.
In Public Key Crypto system, it is required to know the Public Key of Receiver to encrypt the messages. So that receiver can decrypt the message using his/her own private key. This system needs to maintain directories which holds Public Keys of each user. To eliminate the need of maintaining such directories, this paper suggests computing the public key using receiver’s identity such as Email address. However, implementation of such system which is secure and practical, is difficult. The system uses Quadratic Residues modulo a large composite integer. 
There has been a need for a non-breakable encryption algorithm desired after since the establishment of Cryptography was first matured. However, an algorithm is advised to be immune as long as there has not been found susceptibility through cryptanalysis. Symmetric-key block ciphers abide as the largest and critical aspect in many cryptographic systems. Independently, they add confidentiality. As a central construction block, their adaptability grants the manufacturing of pseudorandom stream ciphers, number generators, hash functions, and MAC’s. Moreover they serve as an essential component in message verification methods, symmetric-key signature schemes, entity confirmation protocols, and data purity. Although Block ciphers are very powerful objects their design flaws and complex interface opens the door for wider attacks.
A public key system works in the following manner: Alice and Bob each have two keys, one of which is secret to themselves and the other which is publicly known. The publicly-known key is registered with a trusted
In today’s internet era we all like to pay our mobile bills with just a click, book holiday destinations sitting at home and like to transfer money without any queues. For that matter we use our password (secret key) over the internet many times and the frequent use of password increases the probability of its exposure. To reduce the probability of exposure Kim et al  proposed a new variant of proxy signatures  called the self proxy signature scheme based on public key cryptography. In self proxy signatures the user delegates proxy signing rights to himself and generates the proxy key i.e. temporary key using his secret key and then uses this temporary key for all further transactions. This way temporary key controls the frequent use of secret key and protects it from being exposed. Since then several self proxy signature schemes based on public key cryptography [ ] and