Public Relations and Strategic Management

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Journalism Studies, Volume 1, Number 2, 2000, pp. 303–321 Public Relations in Strategic Management and Strategic Management of Public Relations: theory and evidence from the IABC Excellence project JAMES E. GRUNIG AND LARISSA A. GRUNIG University of Maryland, USA ABSTRACT This article establishes the case for public relations as a critical component of an organization’s strategic management processes and of the subsequent strategic management of public relations in an effective organization. The article begins with an elaboration of a theory of the value of strategic management in public relations. Qualitative and quantitative results of the IABC Research Foundation’s Excellence project, presented next, con rmed the importance of…show more content…
Kanter (1983, 1989) and Pinchot (1985) de ned excellence as innovativeness. Fortune magazine annually lists the most admired corporations based on quality of management; quality of products and services; innovation; value as a long-term investment; nancial soundness; ability to attract, develop and keep talented people; community and environmental responsibility; and use of corporate assets. Similarly, Lydenberg et al. (1986) rated corporations on their social conscience; Levering et al. (1984) on human resources bene ts for employees; and Zeitz and Dusky (1988) on bene ts for women. Hickman and Silva (1984) suggested that each organization creates its unique criteria for excellence and then suggested how leadership can help the organization meet those criteria. Finally, Nash and Zullo (1988) named a “Misfortune 500” on the basis of such criteria as “badvertising” campaigns, unjusti ed promotions, mismanagement and poorly conceived products. Although all these lists are of corporations, the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) also aired a program in 1990 in which it named and featured 305 several excellent governmental and nonpro t organizations. Most of these studies of excellence have had two major problems. The rst problem is that most began with a single or limited de nition of an outcome of organizational behavior that could be used to identify excellent organizations. For example, Peters and Waterman (1982) identi ed 43 excellent corporations using nancial
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