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UNIT 19 CONCEPT OF SWARAJ, SATYAGRAHA AND CRITIQUE OF WESTERN CIVILISATION Structure ! I 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 Objectives Introduction The Civilisational Justification and British Rule 19.2.1 Gandhi, Moderates and the Extremists on the Legitimacy of British Rule i I I Gandhi's Hind Swaraj 19.3.1 Gandhi, Extremists and British Colonialism 19.3.2 Gandhi, Moderates and British Colonialism 19.3.3 Gandhi on Swaraj 19.4 Gandhi's Critique of Modern Civilisation 19.4.1 Western Influences on Gandhi 19.4.2 Meaning of True Civilisation 19.4.3 Critique of Modern Civilisation 19.5 Political, Economic and Moral Dimensions of Swaraj: More Detail 19.5.1 19.5.2 19.5.3 19.5.4 19.5.5 Definition and Meaning Swaraj or Participatory Democracy Swaraj and…show more content…
T h e moderates were opposed to the "economic drain" of lndia by British colonialism but they believed in the cultural superiority o l modern Western civilisation. T h e sou ht to bring about India's modernisation and eventual indepcndencc through conventional political methods, e.g. petitionsand legislative actions. By contrast. the extremists relied on terrorist or violent methods. The revivalists among them upheld the cultural supcriority 01' lndian tradition. I F Gandhi accepted some parts and re~cctedsome other parts of the thcor) and practice of the moderates and the cxtr.emists. He maintained that in his own theory and programme of action I'or swaraj, both mo,dcrate.r and thr extremists can join*l;and\ on a S U p ~ r j nn l - n ~ r Check Your Progress 1 Note : i) Use the space given below Tor y o u r answer. ii) Check your answer with that given at the end of thc unit. 1) In what way did (;andhi differ from the moderates aiid the e~trcniists rcpiirds as legitimacy o f British rule'? 19.3 GANDHI'S HIND SWARAJ Gandhi put forward his political ideas in several of his speeches and writings, the most notable of which is the booklet, 'Hind Swaraj', which he wrote in Gujarati on board S.S. Kildonan Castle during his return voyage from London to South Africain 1909. It was first published in two parts in Indian Opinion, a weekly edited and published by Gandhi and it refers to Indian anarchists living in London. The Indian anarchists stood for

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