Purpose Of An Unknown Solution Using Fractional Distillation

1031 WordsOct 5, 20175 Pages
Distillation Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to perform a simple distillation as well as a fractional distillation and to determine the composition of an unknown solution using fractional distillation. Procedure: First, the simple distillation apparatus was set up. An oil bath was placed on a hot plate. A 100mL round-bottomed flask was submerged in the oil and held using a clamp and ring stand. The round-bottomed flask was then connected to the distillation head ensuring that the joint was greased. The thermometer was placed inside the distillation head so that the top of the bulb was level with the arm of the distillation head. The distillation head was attached then to the condenser held up by a clamp and ring…show more content…
A small beaker was placed under the arm of the distillation head to catch the distillate. Foil was wrapped around the neck of the round-bottomed flask and a wet paper towel was wrapped around the arm of the distillation head to create a condenser. The flask was heated gently so that the distillate dropped at a rate of two drops per minute. The temperature was recorded as every drop was collected. The distillation began at around 55.0 ℃. The distillation was stopped after 29 drops were collected to prevent the solution from being distilled to dryness. See attached data. The known boiling point of 1-butanol is 117.5 ℃ (Lemonds). The known boiling point of 1-propanol is 97 ℃ (Thiyagarajan). The known boiling point of acetone is 56 ℃ (Forss). The known boiling point of 2-butanone is 79.6 ℃ (Jiang). For unknown #3 the boiling point of the first substance seemed to be around 56 ℃ and the boiling point of the second substance seemed to be around 111 ℃. Therefore unknown #3 seemed to be a mixture of acetone and 1-butanol. Discussion: The fractional distillation was more accurate than the simple distillation, however there were large temperature fluctuations that occurred during the fractional distillation. After two drops the temperature dropped back down to 40 ℃ and stopped dripping. The distillation started dripping again when the

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