In this experiment, distillations were done. This is a technique that utilizes the differing boiling points of two or more compounds in a mixture in order to separate the compounds from the mixture. The way fractional distillation works is that the initial mixture is boiled up to the point of the lower boiling point compound; this compound then evaporates. This compound is then
With the purpose of the experiment being to identify the 30 mL of unknown liquid, the theoretical basis of simple and fractional distillation must be deconstructed and applied to the data obtained describing the liquid in question.
Whereas for simple distillation, the compounds need to be around 80C apart in order for proper separation to occur. Thus, cyclohexane and toluene were not able to be properly separated since the boiling point for cyclohexane was 80.74C while the boiling point of toluene was 110.6C—there two boiling points are fairly close to one another. Thus, the mole fraction for cyclohexane and toluene were fairly low when compared to cyclohexane and
Objective: The main goal of this lab is to learn how separation of binary liquid mixtures is performed. Especially when the two liquids have boiling points varying by about 30° C. Hexane can be separated from toluene in this experiment because of the difference in their boiling points. Since toluene has a higher boiling point, it will left at the bottom while the hexane starts to boil out and collect in the Hickman still. GC measurements help us in determining how accurate our data is by making a graph of the amount of hexane and toluene in each fraction. Also this lab gives experience with semi-micro
The purpose of this experiment was to perform a simple distillation as well as a fractional distillation and to determine the composition of an unknown solution using fractional distillation.
The purpose of this experiment was to separate a two component mixture using fractional distillation. Distillation is a process of vaporization than condensation of a substance, used primarily to separate substances from a mixture when there are different boiling points. Fractional distillation is when the mixture has multiple substances with similar boiling points, and a fractional column is used to create multiple vaporization/condensation cycles. Fractional distillation is important when two or more substances need to be separated, but they have similar boiling points.
Describe the use of fractional distillation to separate the components of petroleum and identify the uses of each fraction obtained.
The purpose of this lab is to investigate the processes that can be used to separate two volatile liquids in a mixture based on their chemical properties. This is accomplished by fractional distillation, which separates chemicals in a mixture by differentiating them by their boiling points at atmospheric pressure. Specifically in this lab, fractional distillation is used to separate an unknown mixture into its respective pure components. The components are then identified using gas chromatography, which is also telling of the purity of the extracts and success of the procedure. The procedure of this experiment was specified in lecture by Dr. Fjetland and in Gibert and Martin’s student lab manual, Experimental Organic Chemistry: A Miniscale and Microscale Approach, 6th Edition.
For Fraction 1, below 110 degree Celsius (approximately 63 degree Celsius) because that is the boiling point for 1-hexene. For Fraction 2, around 143 degree Celsius because that is the boiling temperature for 2-bromohexane.
The memo summarizes the findings from the initial assessment performed on the 190 proof SDA-3AU alcohol for use in Fractionation and downstream processes.
There was no distillate in the distillation head after 20 minutes on the setting of 40 so the Variac transformer was turned to 45. The first fraction was collected at 55.6°C. The ratio of hexane to octane was 87.437% to 12.563%. The second fraction was collected between 47.3°C and 40.5°C. 88.429% to 11.571% was the ratio of hexane to octane for this fraction. The third fraction was collected at 30.6°C, and the ratio of hexane to octane was 94.957% to 5.043%. The contents of the conical reaction vial were placed in a fourth vial and a chromatogram was obtained for it. The ration of hexane to octane was 7.501% to 92.499%. During the collection of the three fractions, a piece of the glass pipet broke off into the distillation head. The results of the experiment could have been incorrect because the glassware was not properly cleaned. The distillate also could have collected too fast which would have lowered the separations efficiency. From this information, infer that hexane has a lower boiling point than octane because most of the distillate was hexane. The majority of what was left in the conical reaction vial was octane because the temperature was not hot enough to turn it into a gas to go into the distillation
Distillation is a method of separating two volatile chemicals on the basis of their differing boiling points. During this lab, students were given 30 mL of an unknown solution containing two colorless chemicals. Because the chemicals may have had a relatively close boiling point, we had to employ a fractional distillation over a simple distillation. By adding a fractionating column between the boiling flask and the condenser, we were able to separate the liquids more efficiently due to the fact that more volatile liquids tend to push towards the top of the fractionating column, thereby leaving the liquid with the lower boiling point towards the bottom. After obtaining the distillates, we utilized a gas chromatograph in order to analyze the volatile substances in the gas phase and determine their composition percentage of the initial solution. Overall, through this lab we were able to enhance our knowledge on the practical utilization of chemical theories, and thus also demonstrated technical fluency involving the equipment.
Fractional distillation uses a column filled with glass beads that improve the separation between the liquids that are being distilled.  The glass beads allow the refluxing liquid to condense, re-evaporate, and then condense again.  Fractional distillation is better used for separating mixtures of liquids that have close boiling point separations. Due to the boiling point of 1-methylcyclohexene being 110°C, 3-methylcyclohexene being 104°C, and methylenecyclohexane being 102-103°C, fractional distillation was used instead of simple distillation. Even though the boiling points are different, they are still collected together, making them azeotropes. Due to this, they cannot be separated by fractional
A good yield of isopentyl acetate was obtained during this experiment. Loss of the product was likely through transferring liquid from separatory funnel to the Erlenmeyer flask and residual material left in the distillation flask. Using an organic solvent like benzene or cyclohexane as a transfer agent would improve the yield, since their boiling points were around 80 oC and could be easily separated from the final product through simple distillation. However this
A 10 mL round-bottom flask was weighed both before and after approximately 1.5 mL of the given alcohol, 4-methyl-2-pentanol, was added. 3 mL of glacial acetic acid, one boiling chip, and 2-3 drops of concentrated sulfuric acid were added to the flask in that order. The reflux apparatus was assembled, the