There are constant changes being made in the DSM and with more research more information is available on the disorders. The recent revisions and changes to the DSM 5 have raised many controversies. The Autism Spectrum Disorder is an illness that affects brain development and is characterized by multiple domains. In the DSM IV the diagnostic criteria for autism and the subtypes worked well at making each disorder distinct and providing the information needed by professionals to follow and apply. The subtypes were the Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, Rett’s Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD-NOS). Creating a spectrum through
When people hear the diagnosis of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), they think of an individual that has a hard time integrating into to today’s society. A lot of people don’t know that Autism is actually classified as a group of complex disorders associated with brain development. Each of these specific disorders is characterized into different degrees. The first is the one that most people associate with autism, which is trouble with social integration. The other classifications are verbal and non-verbal communication, also repetitive behaviors. With all of these subtypes, in 2013 a manual was published connecting these sub groups into one diagnosis called autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
Autism disorder is an issue facing many people today. It’s an issue widely discussed in the news and social media. In Gale’s data from 2015 defines autism as a general term for a group of complex disorders of the brain development that are grouped together under the broader term of autism spectrum disorder also known as ASD. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), as of 2014, about 1 in 68 out of 1,000 children were diagnosed with ASD. This was a dramatic increase from 1 in 150 children in 1992. The CDC also
Autism is the main form of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Autism is a developmental disorder that is manifested in problems with communication, impairment of social functioning, and repetitive behaviours. According to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), ASD diagnoses must meet four different areas of criteria. There are three symptoms of "deficits in social communication and interaction across contexts," four symptoms of "restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests, or activities," "symptoms must be present in early childhood," and the symptoms must "together limit and impair everyday functioning" (Carpenter, 2013). There are many theoretical positions on the causes of autism spectrum disorders. Some of which have been discounted by empirical studies that have been researched and performed.
The history of autism dates back to about one hundred years ago, the word autism was by Eugene bleuler in 1908 to describe a group of people similar to schizophrenia. Later in the 1940s the united states began to use it to describe a group of children with emotional and social problems. Autism and schizophrenia were regarded in the same context, till 1960 when medical professionals began to separate their understanding of autistic children. For a very long time autism and psychosis continued to be confused and till this day many parents find a hard time understanding the real meaning of autism and till this day researchers still haven’t found the cause of autism. Autism is a complexed
Autism is defined as the brain disorder that begins in early childhood and persists throughout adulthood. Autism affects three areas of human development: (1) verbal and nonverbal communication, (2) social interaction, and (3) creative or imaginative play. Autism is considered a severe disorder and developmental disability that prevents individuals from properly understanding what they see, hear and sense. The cause of autism remains unknown. Current theories indicate a problem with the function or structure of the central nervous system. This essay overviews the history of autism and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). It provides an idea of the population and causes of autism. It takes about the program services and the current operational issues related to autism.
The search terms I used to locate this study were “academic performance” and “high school athletes.” I found the study in the SPORTDiscus with Full Text database. There were several reasons why I chose this study to analyze over other studies identified in the search results. The main reason I chose this study was because its research question most directly addressed my research topic. The other aspects of the study that made it seem worth investigating were that it was peer reviewed, it was published within the last year, and it examined students within the United States. Many of the other studies in the search results analyzed student samples from other countries; but in order to maintain consistency and keep my research topic somewhat narrow, I want to only look at studies that investigate athletics in secondary education in the United States.
As research into autism spectrum disorders has increased over recent years and this has resulted in changes to the way that American psychiatry diagnoses autism spectrum disorders. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) is used by clinicians as a guide to diagnoses of mental health illnesses and since its first publication in 1930’s it has been updated every 20 years, and these updates reflect on new research and discoveries.
Autism is a developmental disorder that affects 1 in 68 children (CDC, 2014). It is a wide spectrum ranging from mild to severe. Diagnostic criteria have evolved to 2 main categorical commonalities along the spectrum. According to the DSM-V (APA, 2013), they are deficits in social communication and interaction across multiple settings and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities. Additional characteristics like lack of or non functional speech patterns
For many centuries, countless individuals have had problems with numerous forms of expression, such as communicating effectively, building relationship, or thinking critically. These multiple forms of complications left their loved ones with an unknown reason for their lack of interaction. It wasn’t until recent years that a name was finally given to classify the disorder these individuals possessed—autism. Autism is a mental condition, characterized by difficulty in communicating and forming relationships with other people and in using language and abstract concepts (qtd. in Young). The term first came about in the 1940s, when researchers used it to describe children with emotional or social problems (“History”). Even though the term first appeared in the 1940s, this disorder did not become prominent until recent years. The rise in autism has been steady since it was first exposed to society. Autism prevalence has increased from 1 in 5,000 in 1975 to 1 in 150 in 2002 to 1 in 68 in 2012 (McNamee). In this paper, I am going to examine various reasoning behind the rise in autism, with my main focal point being, “Why has autism become such a major source of attention and debate in recent years?” I plan to deliberate between different theories that have created attention about the autism community, as well as establish my personal viewpoint on this topic.
Autism is a disorder that has common misconceptions. In “Autism-Myths and Reality” Christian Jarrett attempts to uncover the truths based on the rumors and also to show what Autism really is. He also tries to create awareness of language that could be offensive to people with Autism. In this article Jarrett wants to help show people that knowing the truths about this disorder and not trying to simplify it can help show sensitivity towards those with Autism.
Misconceptions of autism are defined as “ideas about the disorder that are not scientifically proven” (Chatkewits & Losonczy-Marshall, 2014, p. 46). According to Huws and Jones (2010), who carried out semi-structured interviews to explore how people with no prior knowledge or experience of autism conceptualised autism, people with little or no knowledge about the disorder were found to have misbeliefs about autism. Some viewed autism as a “gift” rather than an “affliction” (Huws & Jones, 2010, p. 337), and some believed that people with autism were “extremely clever, with excellent memories” (p. 338). The authors (Huws & Jones, 2010) states that the media’s portrayal of people with autism seem to have had an influence on their perception of
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by qualitative impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted, repetitive behavior (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013), and is associated with impairments in executive functions. Autism Spectrum Disorder is also defined as a group of disorders that impair an individual’s ability to understand and engage in the give-and-take of social relationships. (Boyd, 2015) Autism is a well-known disability in the world today. Autism statistics from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identify 1 in 68 American children on the Autism spectrum. There has been a prevalent increase in the cases of autism in the past 40 years. Over 3 million people in the United States alone are affected by autism. Government autism statistics suggest that the prevalence of autism has increased 10 to 17 percent annually in recent years. There is no established explanation for why there is such an increase in autism in the recent years, but more people being aware of it and environmental factors could be a factor to the increase. (Jenson, Steinhausen, Lauritsen. 2014)
Autism is a fascinating disability because of its inherent variability. In fact, often times the term autism is deemed outdated. It is more currently said the individual has an autism spectrum disorder (although this is not yet recognized by by IDEA (Loiacono, 2009)), indicating that the disorder is not the same and can not be treated the same as another disorder under this umbrella term. Because autism contains a variety of unique conditions with perhaps similar hallmarks, its incidence is higher than that of disabilities with very specific symptoms. With an increasing number of children being screened for different disorders, more children are being identified and diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. This increase in numbers has brought about questions regarding the
Tens of millions of people have been diagnosed with Autism worldwide, effecting both genders, all races, ethnicities and people from all socioeconomic classes. In 2010 a Surveillance Summary was conducted in the United States, where it identified that one in 68 children are diagnosed with Autism (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). It has been recognised