Question 1:. The Fall Of Constantinople In 1453 Was The

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The Fall of Constantinople in 1453 was the siege of Constantinople (New Rome), the capital of the Byzantine Empire which took place in 1453. The siege was led by the seventh sultan of the Ottoman Empire, the 21-year-old Mehmed the Conqueror, ruler of the Ottoman Turks, Sultan Mehmed II and his invading army who defeated an army that was commanded by Constantine XI Palaiologos. Consequently, the defeat of Constantinople on 6 April 1453, led to a 53-day siege. This event marked the fall and the end of the Roman Empire, a sovereign state that had ruled for over 1,500 years. It was a tragedy that broke the tie between Orthodox churches and the others especially the Christian Empire because the Christian Empire believed in the
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The first crusade was initiated by Pope Urban II on November 27, 1095, where he called upon the nobility of the Franks of Western Europe, to help save their Christian brothers the Byzantines, in the East against the attacks of the Muslim Turks. In addition, he encouraged them to liberate Jerusalem from the Muslims who had dominance of Islamic culture and rule since Jerusalem was captured in A.D. 638 from the Christian Byzantines. The response by Christians to Urban’s speech was perpetuated by series of violence, vengeance, and reconquest, in which Christians and Muslims engaged acts of savage brutality leading the war for the Holy Land. Jerusalem was saved from the Muslims with subsequent establishment of several crusader states which lasted for more than two centuries. They created an enduring and distinguished legacy for the cultures of both the Islamic and Christian worlds.
The First, Second and Third Crusades founded led to the emergence of military/religious orders. For example, The Teutonic Knights, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Templar and other military orders were founded during these periods. However, the Teutonic Knights transformed into a great military order with massive influence in the Holy Land.
The Crusades also resulted in major political changes. The recapturing of Jerusalem from the Muslims played an important role in the development of national monarchies, leading to the establishment of the Crusader
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