Questions On The Energy Crisis

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LITERTURE REVIEW - PHOTOVOLTAICS Y. Choaie ABSTRACT The energy crisis in 19731,2 led to a major reorientation in the publics perception to the energy supply problem,1-3 the limited supply of fossil fuels was recognised; therefore, many governments around the world encouraged the search for alternatives sources.1-5 Among them is photovoltaic’s; the most promising contender as a universal energy source. According to Tinsley, “every hour, it floods the earth with a deluge of thermal energy equal to 21 billion tons of coal”.6,7 However, a substantial impediment limiting the development of photovoltaic systems has been the costly expense of the crystalline silicon solar cell module.1-6 Scientists took part in profound experimentations in order to overcome this setback; one of the leading solutions discovered is the development of thin-film cells,1,3,4 which saves both material and energy in the production of the cells and modules.1,3,5 INTRODUCTION We, the human species have been exploiting the energy of the sun since the seventh century; the suns rays flood the earth’s surface and we have been utilizing them to meet our energy demands (Figure 1).1,6 The photovoltaic effect was first discovered in 1839 by Edmond Becquerel (Figure 2),1,2,4 who observed that the application of light on a platinum electrode coated with silver in an electrolyte generated an electric current.1,4 Becquerel’s theory sparked the idea of a semiconductor material as a source to convert solar
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