Quinolone: The Discovery Of Antibiotics That Kill Bacteria

Decent Essays
Antibiotic Resistance
Leanne Xu, TIS101B - Ms Kuhn

Introduction of problem
Antibiotics have been treating diseases and infections for a very long time. During ancient times many different types of things were used such as moulds, plants, frog bile and more. However, it was not until modern times when antibiotics started to become more commonly known and used. The discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming marked a new pathway for modern antibiotics. Since then antibiotics have been used constantly for colds, medical procedures, saving millions of lives. However, they are being misused and overused, making them less effective as the bacteria they are fighting develop resistance. This is a global concern that many people still
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Broad spectrum antibiotics are effective against many different types of bacteria, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative, and can treat a wide range of infections. Quinolone's is a type of broad-spectrum antibiotic that kills bacteria with hydroxyl radicals, which are molecules that destroy the lipids and proteins that make up a cell's membrane and damage cell DNA, halting replication. On the other hand, narrow spectrum antibiotics, such as penicillin, are only effective against specific groups of bacteria, either Gram-positive or Gram-negative. Penicillin works by destroying the structure of a cell wall, specifically preventing Gram-positive bacteria from being able to build new ones meaning that the bacteria cannot live on as their innards can no longer be…show more content…
This is because antibiotics work differently to destroy an essential function of bacteria. From a biochemical or physical perspective, there are 3 main factors that contribute to the resistance. The first factor is that bacterium will alter its cell wall so that the antibiotic cannot penetrate it. Another factor includes bacteria producing enzymes that can break down the antibiotics before they can work. The third factor is that certain bacteria have developed mechanisms known as efflux pumps, which are able to generate antibiotics from the bacterial cell before they have a chance to exert any effect. The last effect is when the bacteria's antibiotic target site is altered which causes the antibiotic to be unable to bind itself to it, which is essential for the antibiotic to have an effect on the bacteria. The genetics of bacteria also play a large role in antibiotic resistance. Bacteria, like other living organisms, possess DNA that codes for the proteins and enzymes it requires for survival. Changes to the DNA can result in alterations in the final proteins or enzymes, which in turn can lead to antibiotic resistance. An example is the acquisition and accumulation of resistance genes from bacteria
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