Quiz on Philosophy and Reasoning

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1. Define the term "reason." Reason refers to a faculty of mind that allows human beings to make conscious decisions based on known evidence. It often entails the use of logic, detailed analyses, and critical thought. A reason in the sense of a validation for an argument refers to something different. Usually the reasons used to support an argument consist of personal beliefs, opinions, anecdotes, fears, financial motivations, or actual facts, data, and statistics. 2. What are the ways you should look for the reasons used to support an argument? "Panning for gold" is the way the authors claim readers can look for the reasons being used to support an argument. This involves asking critical questions, seeking underlying meanings, and motives for why the person writes. For example, readers should ask why the writer is trying to persuade to discover the hidden motives. The person should evaluate the argument for textual or factual evidence. The person should form his or her own conclusions and those might offer clues to the reasons the author used. The reasons used to support an argument may be explicit or implicit. Explicit reasons will be stated in ways like, "I believe abortion is right because"¦" whereas implicit reasons will not be stated in a direct manner. A person must read between the lines to discover a person's biases and prejudices, which will be used as reasons to support an argument even if those reasons are invalid. 3. What do we call the "specific
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