RENAL SYSTEM Essay examples

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Objective: Explain the pathophysiology of acute renal failure. Include prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal causes-

Pre Renal
Impending problems or signs and symptoms involving malfunction of the renal system can be detected by:
a. The inability of the patient to urinate known as anuria.
b. Flank and side pain
c. Painful urination (dysuria)
d. Blood in the urine (hematuria)
e. Diminished urine output or Urinary Retention
f. A generalized feeling of weakness and malaise
All of the preceding are signs and symptoms indicating a possible kidney problem.
The pre renal stages of acute renal failure are preexisting conditions such as; diabetes, hypertension, and other cardio pulmonary diseases leading to complications that are
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Causes of intrarenal failure are preexisting problems in the body or obstruction in the kidneys themselves. Preexisting conditions relating to lack of hormone producing and stimulation or improper reabsoprtion and reuptake.

Post-Renal
This stage or acute renal failure would have to do with the lack of hormones and balance within the body. Because the body is either not producing the proper hormones or not excreting the wastes properly the body suffers an imbalance. The following are problems associated with Post-Renal failure:
a. Decreased glomerular filtration causing an increase in sodium (Na+) leading to edema.
b. fluid and electrolyte imbalance
c. Tubular damage impairing the ability to concentrate urine and leading to polyuria and nocturia
d. The retention of water (H+) and the subsequent production of metabolic acidosis and Kussmaul breathing
e. Increased potassium and decreased sodium leading to an increase in the parathyroid hormone. As a result of renal failure there is an accumulation of urea in the blood leading called Uremia. If there are other nitrogenous waste products in the blood it is called azothemia. Azotemia is a condition wherein an excess of nitrogenous end products of protein and amino acids are found in the blood. Ureamia and azotemia may produce inflammation of the pericardium of the heart, pleuritis, or pnuemonitis. As blood flows through your entire body the poisons that your kidneys are unable to excrete

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