Racial Segregation Within The United States

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The contemporary debate regarding the distinctive patterns of poverty among African Americans revolves around the question, “is it class or race that causes (and perpetuates) such misfortune of African Americans?” Scholars have looked at patterns of residential segregation in their attempts to answer such a question. Massey and Denton explore racial residential segregation in the United States throughout the 20th century. They argue that the making and concentration of the (African American) underclass in inner cities resulted from institutional and interpersonal racism in the housing market that perpetuates already existing racial segregation. Similarly, Reardon and colleagues conclude that residential segregation by income level occurs all across racial groups, but it is especially problematic poorer Blacks and Hispanics from their investigation of neighborhood income composition by household race and income at the turn of the 21st century. Thus, residential segregation by both class and race perpetuate structural disadvantages and misfortunes of African Americans in today’s American society.
Massey and Denton explore how racial segregation in residence has caused the making of inner city ghettos and their perpetually poor residents, most of whom are African Americans. They argue that institutional racism in the housing market enacted by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), private loan and real estate institutions and actors, and white residents

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