Racial and Ethnic Disparity and Criminal Justice

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Racial and Ethnic Disparity and Criminal Justice: How much is too much?
In this article, Robert, April, and Jorge (2010) acknowledges previous research reports on this topic and reveals that race, and racial patterns have found their way in involvement of crime. However, Robert, April, and Jorge (2010) argue that there is no significant proof that there are meaningful racial disparities in the legal systems. Although some literatures provide research on the existence of racial profiling by police, in imprisonment, and sentencing, other researchers report no significant racial disparities in the legal systems (Black and Reiss, 1970; Pilivian and Briar, 1964). However, other researchers report on ample racial disparities based on race. These researches are controversial because the size of the differences in such reports tends to bring up the question of meaningfulness of the differences observed (Wilbanks, 1987).
During the Antebellum period, the American legal system witnessed disparity when there was a massive movement of African Americans out of the rural cities to the urban areas (Crutchfield and Finke, 1983). Another research in other parts of America, prior to the civil war, many whites was imprisoned (Robert, April, and Jorge, 2010). Prior literature on the convict lease systems in postbellum south that aimed at replacing slavery also practiced racial disparity, seen during the using of blacks to work in the field they had worked before as slaves (Adamson 1790-1835;
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