The research proposal will be submitted for approval to Douglas College Research Ethics Board. The completed application is included in Appendix 1. Since the research involves young children who are deemed a vulnerable population, written consent will be obtained from their parents or legal guardians hereinafter referred to as “representatives”. The representatives will consent for usage of the participants’ medical records by the researchers. In particular, the researchers will screen the participants’ medical records for the information pertaining MMR vaccination and ASD diagnosis. The researchers will inform the representatives that the purpose of the research is is to determine the correlation between autism
Therefore, the practitioner should be aware of the physiological features of pain in infants and be an active advocate for pain control. The role of the nurse practitioner is centralized on a holistic approach to patient care; whereby, the practitioner striving every time to provide effective pain control to ensure a positive experience. According to Hatfield (2008), “efforts to decrease the pain associated with immunizations can promote parental adherence to recommended immunization schedules, prevent a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases and mitigate adverse neurologic outcomes in infants” (p.
In emergency rooms across the United States one of the most common complaints is pain. Recently, there have been reports on the news saying that doctors have a problem with prescribing too much pain medication. That may be true for adults but the same cannot be said for pediatric patients. A study of 24,707 Emergency Department (ED) visits reported that one 44% of pediatric patients have very little pain control in spite of pain documentation (Ramira, Instone, & Clark, 2016, p. 39). Sometimes it seems as though health care professionals take the pain of an adult more serious than a child’s. In the article, Pediatric Pain Management: An Evidence-Based Approach conducted by Maria Ramira, APRN, Susan Instone, APRN, and Mary Clark, PhD RN seeks to address this issue and introducing methods that might improve pediatric pain management.
The ASQ-3 27 month questionnaire was utilized according to the child’s age at the time of testing, June 09, 2017. The child’s mother completed the questionnaire with the child’s interaction by having the child try each activity before marking a response to the questionnaire. According to Squires and Bricker et al., (2009), the questionnaire scores were greater within the normal range although a few areas were borderline for interventions. The recommendations were verbalized to the parents and parental areas of concern addressed to follow up with the child’s next pediatrician visit, which is February, 2018. According to Squires et al., (2009), Activities for Children 30-36 Months Old, recommendations
The Academy of Pediatrics and the American Pain Society believe that pain in children is experienced with interrelated factors such as sensory, emotional, cognitive and behavioral, combined with environmental, sociocultural and contextual elements (Stanley & Pollard, 2013). The authors find that pediatric pain often goes under treated. Pain management engages the entire nursing process, placing the nurse’s role as central to its
I spent the past week reviewing all the data I have collected to this point. The data and health needs reported in Healthy People 2020, as well as the epidemiological and community data I collected, convey consistent themes. The HP 2020 topics of injury and violence prevention, hearing and communication disorders, oral health and access to health services all appear to be topics of concern and are identified health needs of the community I am targeting. With epidemiological data showing the rates of autism climbing at steady levels, the need for an increase awareness and planned interventions involving these health topics will be essential to meet the objectives established by the federal government.
There are a number of ways to assess pain in paediatric patients. These assessment methods can be broadly defined as self-report, behavioural observation and psychological observation. They should be used in combination with each other, as they have varying levels of reliability due to the influence of other factors that are unrelated to pain.
The researchers used a coin to select the sample for the two groups of the study, a demographic questionnaire to collect data, a Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale to assess the children pain level before and after the procedure, and an elastic soft ball. The study clearly described the tools, provided a detailed explanation of the Wong-Baker FACES and how it was used during the procedures, which proved the validity and reliability of the instruments used in the study. Validity is defined as a determination of how well the instrument reflects the concept being examined, and reliability is demonstrated when consistent results are produced using the same instruments (Grove et al., 2015). Lastly, to evaluate the data of the results the authors used SPSS program which evaluate the frequency, mean, percent and standard deviation, they used the chi-square test to evaluate the homogeneity of the two groups, the kolmogorov-smirnov test to assess the normality of the data, and the independent t-test to compare children’s pain in the intervention and control
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) claim that immunizations are one of the most successful interventions in public health history (2015). The CDC is qualified to make this statement as research shows the vaccinations have eradicated smallpox and nearly eliminated the polio virus, in addition to diminishing the occurrences of preventable infectious diseases such as measles, diphtheria and whooping cough (2015). However, despite the statistics and research, in 2015, only 71.6% of the children between 19 and 35 months received the combined 7 vaccine series (CDC, 2015). This decline in vaccination rate can have devastating effects not only on the individual child, but also on the community, as a whole. Consequently,
Screening criteria were established to identify potentially relevant articles that met minimum methodological standards for acceptance. Inclusion criteria were: studies published between 2007 and 2015, incorporated cohort, case control, randomized control and qualitative study, evaluated the use of assistive technology and focused on children with
Nevertheless, infant health evaluation from time to time is important since it helps professionals to advise parents on what to expect in the coming months. Therefore, time to talk about vaccines is stressful, but when a child is ready to receive vaccines, nothing is more paramount than making the time to assess the parents’ information requirement as well as the impact they make in
Pediatric pain management is measured subjectively because it is based off of what the patient says or how the nurse interprets the pain scale. Pain is rated using different scales, unfortunately these different scales could yield different results. Nurses are trained to use pediatric pain scales to analyze and treat pain but parents are not supplied with the tools to manage pain when the patient goes home. With 84% of all pediatric surgical procedures performed on an outpatient basis, the importance of teaching parents how to assess for and manage pain has become more important than ever (Rony, Fortier, Chorney, Perret, & Kain, 2010). According to Rony’s et al. (2010) study, it is apparent that pediatric pain is not being treated effectively. The study showed that 58.8% of children were receiving less than the daily recommended does prescribed by the pediatrician (p.1). Results of the study also showed that parents had false assessments on if their child was actually in pain. 36% of parents believed that if their child was in pain, they would cry out for the parent , 30% agreed that their child would always tell them if they are in pain, while 22% said that the child would report their pain immediately (Rony, Fortier, Chorney, Perret, & Kain, 2010, ). Children do not always verbalize when they are in pain. Sometimes the pain can be so intense that a child is unable to talk. If the child catches on to the parents negative perception of pain medications, the child may not
The purpose of the study is to assess the immediate responsiveness of conditioned pain modulation (CPM; formerly known as diffuse noxious inhibition control or DNIC) as an outcome variable and its association with neck pain and global rating of change (GROC) in neck function among chronic neck pain sufferers between the 1st to 5th years from the onset of condition. Chronic neck pain is largely non-specific in nature and requires a biopsychosocial understanding of risk factors to mitigate their poor outcome. Practice guidelines highlight the importance of classifying these patients, which includes a biopsychosocial perspective for effective intervention (Cote et al 2016). Recent evidence also points to the success of personalized pain management that is anchored on specific neurophysiologic mechanism underpinning the pain experience of each individual (Nir and Yartniksy 2015). There is emerging evidence that simultaneously evaluating this neurophysiologic mechanism, along with biopsychosocial variables identified risk factors related to the development of chronic neck pain at one year (Shahidi et al 2015). There is extensive literature on pain and function outcome variables relating to biopsychosocial factors. In the past few years, there is growing evidence in the neurophysiologic mechanisms literature that includes CPM/DNIC’s validity and reliability in various chronic pain states. There is a call for CPM/DNIC to be used as outcome variable because it signifies the status
They also tie in closely with the psychological effects which develop as the treatment progresses. In one study conducted by Enskar and von Essen, it was found that in most 8 to 12 year olds, pain came from the diagnostic procedures and treatments. There were comparisons between children who were receiving treatment at the moment and those who had completed it. Of the children who were receiving treatment, they had more problems with hair loss and nausea compared to those who had completed the treatment (Enskar & von Essen, 2008, pp. 37, 39). During the duration of the treatment, the patients typically felt the physical effects even more compared to when it was completed. There is also a distinct comparison between which effects are emphasized between school aged children and adolescents. Children felt weak and tired physically while adolescents felt fatigue mentally and emotionally (Hooke, Garwick, & Gross, 2011, p.