Reaction Paper On Piezoelectric Ceramics

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Piezoelectric ceramics are inorganic nonmetallic materials that have the property of achieving conversion between mechanical energy and electrical energy [1]. This property is called piezoelectricity. Curie brothers first discovered piezoelectricity in 1880. Their experiment demonstrated the generation of electricity when well prepared crystals of quartz were under mechanical pressure. Inversely, a mechanical distortion occurred in response to the voltage applied to a piezoelectric material [2]. Typical crystals such as quartz, tourmaline, and Rochelle salt exhibit piezoelectric effect but they mostly exhibit only a weak piezoelectric effect, usually have low mechanical strength. Some ones are very sensitive to moisture and their operated temperature…show more content…
They have good mechanical strength, and are hard, chemically inert and immune to humidity, which lead to the application of piezoelectric ceramics for the generation of voltage, electromechanical actuation, frequency control and the generation and detection of acoustic and ultrasonic energy [1, 3]. Piezoelectric ceramics are used in generators, sensors, actuators, and transducers, etc. [4]. They are also used in daily life such as some piezoelectric cigarette lighters, most battery operated smoke detector alarms, many gas grill igniters [5]. There have been a variety of research due to the wide applications of piezoelectric ceramics and the prospect for future development and improvement. Therefore, this paper will briefly introduce the history, applications and future development of piezoelectric ceramic…show more content…
Applications of piezoelectric ceramics can use both direct and converse piezoelectric effects. Generally, by applying compressive stresses, a charge or high voltage is generated due to the direct piezoelectric effect, while the converse piezoelectric effect leads to small displacements caused by applying an electric field to the ceramics. Acoustic and ultrasonic vibrations can be generated by an alternating field tuned at the mechanical resonant frequency of a piezoelectric device and can be detected by amplifying the field generated by vibration incident on the material, which is usually used for ultrasonic transducers. The flexor transducer consists of two piezoelectric ceramic thin plates poled in opposite directions and can be used in gramophone pick-ups and ultrasonic accelerometers. The generation of surface waves enables filters and other devices to be made for use at frequencies exceeding 1GHz. Applications of piezoelectric materials have now expanded into many fields since the discovery of the effect by the Curie brothers in 1880. Significant progress in applications was made possible after the discovery of PZT ceramic materials. Piezoelectric devices can be divided into four general categories: generators, sensors, actuators, and transducers depending of what type of physical effect used. For all of these basic

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