Luther the Reformer: The Story of the Man and His Career by James M. Kittelson is a biography of the famous German monk turned theologian and reformer, Martin Luther. This is one of the most influential men in history, and as a matter of fact, “In most big libraries, books by and about Martin Luther occupy more shelf room than those concerned with any other human being except Jesus of Nazareth” (Kittelson 9). This fame of Luther’s isn’t only postmortem, “This extraordinary interest in an extraordinary man reaches back almost half a millennium. Even in his own time Luther was a ‘media personality’ the first of such in three thousand years of human history” (Kittelson 9). Luther was a subject of great controversy in his own time, as well as in our, and it has only driven his name and message into the spotlight. No matter or what one aligns himself with, “People still find themselves taking sides on the question of Luther” (Kittelson 9). It is for this reason that James M. Kittelson wrote this survey. He tells us that “The primary purpose of this book is to tell the story of Martin Luther to readers who are not specialists in the field of Luther studies” (Kittelson 10). This book is a general overview of all aspects of Luther, not just a precise dissection of one aspect, which allows for “as faithful a picture as possible of the whole man” (Kittelson 11).
The most significant origin of the conflict between religion and science during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was the condemnation of Galileo by the Roman Catholic Church. Since Galileo supported a
Martin Luther changes his attitude between 1517 to 1535 is because now he has more popularity that he has grown more confidence to debate the Catholic Church ideals. Martin was a German monk who believed in God and didn’t argue with the Catholic Church ideas. The main idea Martin disagreed with the Catholic Church for was when they started to sell indulgences to people, to raise money, and to buy art. Martins Luther voiced his concerns that were his 95 Theses. For example, he states that he “has so much boldness that [he has] dared to think of [writing] a letter to someone of [the Pope’s] sublimity…. [he] [grieves] over the wholly false impressions which people have conceived from [Indulgences]” (Document A). This demonstrates that Martin
During the Protestant Reformation, the clergy and the papacy faced the difficult task of negating all heretical ideas. The most influential of all heretics to the Catholic Church was Martin Luther,
Open protest, conflicting interests, lives changed forever. This is a rebellion. You’re willing to fight the authorities to be heard. Armed rebellion is only justifiable if nothing else works. The Rebellions of Upper and Lower Canada, Red River Rebellion, and Northwest Rebellion are all part of Canadian history. They show us that people can go against the government which usually results in a large loss of life, but more importantly change.
From 1524 to 1526 peasant revolts were occurring throughout the German states. Many causes and responses brewed out of these revolts. One cause is from religion issues (1,3,6) , Luther’s idea of equality. Another cause is the peasant gaining power (2,8,9). As a result of these causes came out response, the most common response was riots and chaos (5,11,7). These revolts would end in thousands of rebel deaths and others are also killed.
He had different beliefs than the Catholic Church. Therefore, Luther wrote the “Ninety-Five Theses” accusing them of indulgences and church abuses. He posted it on a church door in Wittenberg which put him in many disagreements with the church. The Catholic Church declared him as a heretic, someone whos beliefs contradict with the church. Later, he began the first Protestant church. He believed that the Bible was the ultimate source of authority and only considered two sacraments. His ideas and actions started the
November 9th 1518, Pope Leo X announced that Luther's writings conflicted with the church and then in July 1520, issued a papal bull saying Luther's Propositions were heretical and gave him 120 days to recant in Rome. Luther refused. Later in January 3rd, 1521 Pope excommunicated Luther from the Catholic Church. This was also the year he returned to Wittenberg, here the reform movement had grown and it was no longer a theological cause, it was now political. With other leaders stepping up to lead the rebellion known as Peasants' War, which moved across Germany. His writing caused the church to fractionalize, hence sparking the Protestant Reformation. Central teachings on the bible being the central source of religious authority shaped the core of Protestantism, as well as how salvation can be reached not through deeds but through faith. As you can see Luther is a controversial figure as he has taken on radical positions such as the pronouncement against dews and his writings led to religious reform and
Luther’s fundamental religious problem was the idea that the church was making people feel that they had to buy or seek salvation through the church. The development started when Luther was younger he was struck by lightning and called out to the church and said that if his life was spared he would become a monk. Sure enough since his life was spared he did as he promised. He was still struggling to understand what he need to do to be blessed with “godliness” the church taught him that it was through good deeds for the church. He was then asked to teach at a University and even though he did not want to do it he did it anyway for his fear of not doing what the church said overwhelmed him. Luther’s fears vanished, however, when he read St. Paul’s letter to the Romans: “He who through
Using the four sources in their historical context, assess how far they support the view that Somerset posed a serious threat to the stability of the monarchy in Edwards reign.
He wrote the 95 theses challenging the wealth of the church, the way to salvation, the authority, and indulgences. Moreover, his four concepts of sola fide, sola scriptura, priesthood of all believers, and all work is sacred challenged the very structure of the religion that the church was built upon. His belief of only faith alone could save one from purgatory, which nullified the need for indulgences. He proves this by quoting the Book of Romans and the New Testament, which was the passage God made him point to. He was able to justify faith alone by proving if one believed in Jesus's messages one was saved, because believing one was saved only with works while not believing in God was not the way to salvation (Justification by Faith). Moreover, Luther believed anyone could interpret the scripture and only what is in scripture should be believed, which challenged the Pope's interpretation and made people less dependant on the church. The Priesthood of all believers challenged the Pope's immediate connection to God and argued that even Priests and the Pope were susceptible to mistakes (The interpretation of the Bible and the Nature of the Clergy). In contrary to the Roman Catholic Church he was adamant about the fact of all being equal in God's eyes, thus the clergy was equal to the laity and not deserving of special privileges. He also stated that the church was protecting itself with the three concepts of spiritual power stronger than temporal power, only the Pope could interpret Scripture, and only the Pope could summon a council (On Papal Power). This allowed the papacy to defend itself from outside attempts to reform it. The papacy argued temporal power was earthly and ever changing, but spiritual power dealt with the after life and was constant, resulting in the papacy seeing itself more powerful than temporal power. Luther
The Hundred Years War was the last great medieval war. It was a war not just between Kings, but lesser nobles were also able to pursue their own personal agendas while participating in the larger conflict. Future wars saw far less factionalism, at least on the scale found in medieval conflicts. The Hundred Years War was actually dozens of little wars and hundreds of battles and sieges that went on for over a century until both sides were exhausted. While neither side won in any real sense, the end result was that while there were two kingdoms at the
In the early 16th century, Martin Luther was studying law at the University of Erfurt. Shortly into his studies Luther was struck by lightning and was met by many emotional changes. From this obscure event, Luther entered the Augustinian Monastery and became a monk. Since the beginning of Luther’s career as a priest and teacher of theology, his criticism with the church was prominent. This sparked the beginning of him becoming a reformer. In his personal torment of gaining God’s grace, he saw changes that needed to be met within the Roman Catholic Church. The
Martin Luther rejected several teachings and practices of the church. He believed that freedom from sin didn’t have to be bought. Luther proposed his discussion of the usefulness of the indulgences in his 95 theses in 1517. In 1520, he refused to retract his writings by the commands of Pope Leo X and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, at the Diet of Worms in 1521. He was excommunicated by the pope and condemned as an outlaw by the emperor.
In life there are many situations where rebellion is required for change and improvement. Some are simple, like growing up and learning not to do certain things and others are more complex like when a group of people stand up for what they believe, for example, women’s rights and black’s rights. I believe that rebellion is healthy for any growing society. There are many things that we do not agree with, whether it is the law or our parent’s instructions. By rebelling we can change our society and/or ourselves for better.