Recurrent UTI

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Recurrent UTI is defined as a UTI (proven by culture) with episodes of uncomplicated UTI for more than three times a year or more than two episodes in 6 months. The incidence of rUTI was high in primary care setting, ranging from 36% in younger women to 53% in women above 55 years.6 Other study showed that at least one rUTI occurred in 27% of young college-age women who experienced their first UTI.7 There are several factors which may affect the occurence of rUTI, those risk factors are varied between premenopausal and postmenopausal women. In premenopausal women, sexual intercourse (recent intercourse/new sexual partners), use of spermicide and diaphragm are the most common risk factors, followed by maternal history, previous case of UTI before 15 years of age, genetics, pelvic anatomy and distance between urethra and anus. On the other hand, postmenopausal women are tend to experience rUTI due to estrogen deficiency, cystocoele, history of urogenital surgery, high post-void volume, previous UTI, and alteration of normal vaginal flora. In…show more content…
Some study said that rUTIs are not life-threatening, however, lowered quality of life and increased health-care costs are inevitable in these diseases.7 Patients with rUTI may experience anxiety of sudden acute episodes and psychological burden.8 In other studies, urinary tract infection may lead to various complications, starting from increased length of stay in hospital until higher mortality rate. Based on a study by Mitchell et al, out of 1.73% of admitted patients who had UTI, there were 3.5 days extra length of stay compared to those without UTI. People with infection also had 2.3 times more chance to die during their admission.9 Moreover, in The United States, annual cost of UTI are >$3.5 billion, whereas in Italy the cost of UTI and rUTI was around 240 and 140 euro per episodes respectively.5,10 Thus, preventive measures should be done to solve this
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