Six videos in all were uses at approximately 8 to 10 seconds in duration. A multiple probe design across participants was used. Each participant was assigned three stimulus categories and a fourth was used to assess across category generalization. The procedure for both baseline and treatment consisted of 18 trials per session and for additional trials that were used for generalization probes which consisted of an exemplar from the fourth stimulus category. The 18 trials for treatment were broken down in to 9 teaching trials and 3 exemplar trials from each of the three training categories. A flow chart for the steps of the procedure can be found on page 286 of the (Kerth et al., 2011) study.
Out of the all of the five major contemporary paradigms which suits my current typical behavior and personality is Behavior Paradigm. Behavior Paradigm uses Observable Behavior, doesn’t matter what occurs in an individual’s mental processes, although their actions have a bigger impact. This specific paradigm also uses Operant Conditioning, which is learning by consequence of environment. Lastly, this paradigm uses classical conditioning, which is learning by association.
Paired-stimulus preference assessment. Separate paired-stimulus preference assessment (Fisher et al., 1992) will be conducted to identify preferred edible reinforcers for each participant. Between 12-16 stimuli were used for the assessment. Items were identified through parental reports and previous preference assessment conducted with behavioral teams. Before the assessment begins the participants will get to sample each piece of each type of food. Items will then be presented in pairs in which the therapist will tell them what both items are and then prompt them to “choose one”. Choice of an item will be defined as reaching towards or asking for an item. For edible reinforcers they will be allowed to consume the food chosen. If a participant
Similar results in which participants accessed the application to make requests for preferred stimuli were reported by Achmadi et al. (2012); Kagohara, et al. (2010) and van der Meer et al. (2012) while Kagohara et al. (2012) reported participants’ successfully making requests for preferred stimuli and identifying educationally relevant
Participants attended sessions six (6) times per week for six (6) consecutive months. Each session consisted of 15 minutes devoted to a test session and 60 minutes of a practice session. The hour session was divided in two 30 minutes. Study group # 1 received 30
I will be able to take kaylen to the park if I am able to decrease the amount of symptoms per day.
Diagnostic/Prescriptive/Evaluative (DPE) process is a type of instruction according to Thomas (1996) that helps students with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) accomplish the best chance of success and independence, when accompanied with life goal planning, and goal instructional analysis (GIA), which is a fundamental part of the DPE teaching. The DPE process takes lesson planning, breaks down instruction into manageable segments specialized for the individual student, which provide the necessary educational flexibility to ensure successful outcomes. The first step of this process is to diagnose the student’s skill level along with his/her strengths and weaknesses, and then devise or prescribe a lesson path, where student progress can be
A multiple stimuli without replacement (MSWO) preference assessment was conducted to identify tangible reinforcers to use as part of the token system as a means to reduce undesired student behavior. According to Daly, Wells, Swanger-Gagné, Carr, Kunz, and Taylor (2009), multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessments are helpful for identifying preferred common classroom activities as reinforcers with children with behavioral disorders. Using an MSWO, Daly et al. (2009) identified and used high, medium, and low preferred stimulus contingent on the completion of math problems. The researchers reported a high correlation between the preference ranking and number of problems the students completed. For this study, the MSWO assessment will be conducted over the course of three consecutive days. For a selected item to be ranked as preferred, it must be selected in at least 80% of opportunities (Tarbox, Ghezzi, & Wilson, 2006).
Study 2: The same baseline procedures were carried out in study 2 as in study 1. The same topics were covered during intervention as in study 1, but the procedure included more one-on-one instruction and extended lesson times by 15 minutes. The interventionist and observations used for fidelity was also the same.
One aspect that will be discussed in this particular Eco-map will be the positive reinforcement that is received from being a father. The psychology characteristics are positive and emotionally solid. Dennis Jr. is his name and we have an outstanding relationship. Therefore, my thoughts toward my son are nothing less than love and satisfaction. Brianna Smith is my wife, we currently are not living together. The psychological stand point for this family member would be emotionally distressed. We have communication issues which leads to a negative thought process. Furthermore, we still have a relationship and will continue to work hard at being great parents. In addition, my daughter is six months old and we have a bonding relationship.
Personally, I feel like my lesson is good; however, it will under good a lot of editing within my first year of teaching and student teaching. Which I am completely fine with, I like to reflect on my work, picking out portions that worked well and attempting to improve elements that did not. Currently, to prevent behavior problems I have a token reinforcement system in place to promote appropriate behaviors. Additionally, I have consequences that I will make present in my classroom, which include a verbal and/or physical warning (must be recognizable to students and defined in behavioral procedure), loss of privilege, and removal of token reinforce item. In order to decrease the amount of consequences that I need to use in my classroom, I implemented a “take a break” procedure and space. Hopefully, students will use this procedure as a coping skill to replace a poor behavioral decision. I will
The researchers chose the backup reinforcers by choosing the highly preferred edible items used during the multiplestimulus-without-replacement (MSWO) preference assessments. The first client, Annie, had to make seven correct responses to receive the backup enforcer; while James, the second client, had to make three correct responses. The individuals were verbally instructed to begin the task, and once the task was completed, they would be given access to the primary reinforcer. James’s results showed that he maintained effectiveness for the token economy as well as for the primary reinforcement. Annie’s results showed that her response in the token condition was lower than in the primary reinforcement condition. The researchers concluded that motivation and reinforcing effects limited the student responses and should be evaluated for future
The study published by DeVries and Feldman in 1983, showed that token reinforcement can increase the rate of sight word acquisition within students with a learning disability in a resource room setting. The study was comprised of two participants, a nine year old boy with directionality and perceptual difficulties and an eleven year old boy with auditory figure ground discrimination. Both participants were two years below grade level in word recognition, had a diagnosis of a learning disability and average intellectual function level, and both were from southwestern USA. After a baseline of each student’s sight words recognition, multiple lists of different five unknown sight words were selected, to use during the intervention. The teacher explained the guidelines of the token system; if the student could remember a sight word 24 hours after the lesson, the teacher would get put a star next to the word. Once the student earned 5 stars (one for each word) they would a sticker on their goal sheet. DeVries and Feldman’s study used stickers as tokens. The children chose a prize of a pre determined list created by a survey they took. The students could then trade in their stickers for a tangible prize from their prize menu. The prize menu was derived from a survey the participants took during the baseline. The goal sheets were sent home to receive the award of parental praise. The study showed that both students increase their sight word vocabulary by 330 percent or more
stimulation and stepping training sessions, thus we expect to see a voluntary response in all groups. Due
Neely, L., Rispoli, M., Camargo, S., Davis, H., & Boles, M. (2013). The effect of instructional