There are millions of examples of children who not only witness intimate partner violence (IPV) but also has been victimized. ( Christoff, Murrell & Henning, 2007) Children exposed to these kinds of violent behavior at such a young age also show signs of these behaviors, many violent, as adults. Evidence shows that witnessing violent behavior as a child correlates to patterns of abuse into adulthood as well. (Murrell et al., 2007) Over the years there has been a growing recognition that young people who witness IPV is has much of the same impact as a child victimized of abuse. This often damages their long term social and emotional well-being. Having a safe place outside of the home along with a supportive
Child abuse and neglect is related to social status prior, during, and after the circumstance. Several sociological issues related to various aspects of domestic violence involve: low socioeconomic status, social and structural stresses, and social isolations and low community embeddedness (Gelles 1985). Parents who associate with these social roles are commonly affected with anxiety, depression, poor self-esteem, emotional problems, substance abuse, mental illness, and poor interpersonal skills (Dixon et al. 2005). Due to intergenerational transmission these violent characteristics are further relayed into the child’s life once they have taken on a parental role and succumb to the same social status and related stresses
It has been noted the vital role that mothers play in a child’s healthy development. Therefore if mothers are abused research done by Sandra A. Graham-Bermann, Co-Director of the Interdisciplinary Family Violence Research Program, has shown that “Children who were exposed to parental violence had many more behavioral problems, exhibited significantly more negative affect, responded less appropriately to situations, were more aggressive with peers, and had more ambivalent relationships with their caregivers than those from nonviolent families.” (Graham-Bermann, S. A., & Levendosky, A. A., 1998). Another factor that can play a negative role in a child’s development is that parents may hold unreasonable expectations from their children due to how they themselves were brought up. Seymour Rosenberg a head of the department of Psychology at The State University of New Jersey helped their study come to the conclusion that “It has also been shown that abusive parents often have unrealistic expectations for their children-expectations based on distorted perceptions of their children's needs, feelings, and abilities” (Herzog, E. P., Gara, M. A., & Rosenberg, S., 1992). Due to this it can cause the child to grow up confused and scared which may lead them to use the same maltreatment towards their kids which will only further the intergenerational abuse. However, Research has also shown that
This suggest that attachment has been at the forefront of children’s social relationships. Attachment substantially contributes to our understanding of why the experience of being physically abused might lead to the development of representations and behavioral patterns that hinder the development of peer relationships. Like Social Learning Theory regarding parental abusive models, attachment plays a major role in how abuse affects children. As such, attachment theory explores the relevance of maltreatment and physical abuse on children. The theory also concludes that children who experience abuse or neglect are likely to develop insecure and disorganized attachments, causing them to extend that same behavior to their own children. This suggests that early childhood adverse experiences influence later parenting behavior (Begle, Dumas & Hanson, 2010).
Another common effect on children who witness domestic violence is that they have severe gender role issues. Clearly, children exposed to the abuse of their mothers are at risk for learning deleterious patterns of social behavior and for developing distorted expectations about the appropriate roles of men and women in the family (Brescoll & Graham-Bermann, 2000, p.2). Therefore, children exposed
The most significant bond of life is between the infant and primary caregiver. John Bowlby, the eminent authority, describes attachment as the natural connection between baby and mother (as cited in Alexander, 1992, p.186). Family dynamics have changed since Bowlby’s time, for this reason, the research analyzes the relationship of the infant and primary caregiver. Bowlby’s attachment theory infers that the path of these bonds lay the groundwork for future behavior, view of one’s self, and relationship with others (Colonnesi et al., 2011). Research on abuse and neglect of infants and it’s correlation to insecure attachment and the type of insecure attachment is vital to set up an early intervention protocol.
Over the past two decades, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) has received increased attention due to the undeniable ripple effects it has on families. Particularly, children who witness dynamics often seen in abusive relationships may be harmful and can have destructive effects on the development of a child(s). Protecting these silent victims from the long-term effects is important as it may lead to abusive relationships in the future. In this paper, I plan to address the direct and indirect abuse that Jordan and Jessica were subjected to while providing insight on an appropriate theory, assessment, and intervention that speaks to the dynamics of IPV that the children were exposed to.
Domestic violence effects everybody in a family. Patterns of abuse from one parent to another, between both parents or directed toward a child all have a composite effect of inflicting potentially severe emotional damage upon the child. The research outlined here identifies domestic violence as a serious sociological problem and consequently provides a usable definition of domestic violence for the present study. This is followed by a discussion on the various psychological consequences of exposure to domestic violence for a developing child. This includes acknowledgement of the manner in which this exposure may damage the ability to formulate healthy social relationships later in life as well as a greater proclivity toward behavior problems, learning difficulties, substance abuse and a learned pattern of violent tendencies.
In the present literature review, the effects of intimate partner violence on children are primarily discussed. The overlapping of exposure to intimate partner violence and targeted child abuse are discussed thoroughly as well in relation to the impact these types of violence have on the development of children. The main body of the present literature review focuses on the prevalence of intimate partner violence, the overlapping of intimate partner violence and child abuse, outcomes for these children as a result of either witnessing and/or experiencing abuse, and potential mediating factors that could contribute to these finding. The second part of the literature review focuses on specific issues and difficulties concerning this research.
Her research finds that, “Intimate partner violence is experienced by at least 1.3 million women each year, who make up 85 percent of the victims.” (McVay 4). Further stating that programs continue to be funded that are ineffective for these women that are experiencing the abuse. Shockingly Kristie also found a link between attachment and partner violence, showing that “…the influence of insecure parental attachment bonds creates an individual who often develops anxious adult romantic attachment patterns leading to a greater propensity to enter into a violent intimate relationship.” (McVay 4). Understanding that these predispositions occur in childhood is pivotal in understanding how these things blossom and continue to grow throughout life within a person’s character. That parent-child relationship plays a role into all other intimate relationships. In fact, “personality/behavior problems all stem from early developed attachment patterns.” (McVay 17). Analyzing adult attachment patterns showed why some people cling to violent intimate relationships as well. Proving that just as “…infants struggle with dissociation and rejection from their caregivers, so do adults suffer from separation from their intimate partners.((Feeney, 1999) Mcvay 19). Another important aspect is defining just what intimate partner violence (IPV) is. “(IPV) is perpetrated or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, emotional, financial, or stalking violence, which includes willful intimidation perpetrated by a current or former intimate partner against another.” (McVay 54). This proves that intimate partner violence is not only physical but also emotional. It is something that negatively affects the partner, it is hard to detect, and can affect anyone, sometimes even without them recognizing it. After her study, she found that if the relationship doesn’t pose extremely dangerous
Babies have a biological drive to form a connection with a primary caregiver, forming an attachment, which can take many forms. A fundamental part of healthy development is a secure attachment, characterized by love and attention from a caregiver. Attachment styles form the basis of subsequent internal working models, or mental construal of the self, others, and relationships based on one’s history of care. An infant with a history of positive experiences will form positive interpersonal relationships. On the other hand, insecurely attached children will not follow a normal course of development and exhibit negative behaviors in the social environment. These children display aggressive and inconsistent behavior. This is due to the child experiencing abusive and neglectful behavior from a caregiver, and forming a negative internal working model based on such experiences throughout development. Current research examines a link between attachment insecurity and later delinquency, particularly in the realm of sexual offense.
Children are impacted the most in a household where domestic violence occurs. Fifty-four percent of families reported that domestic violence occurred in the child’s home (Bowen, 2000). That is over half of all children who experience some sort of physical or psychological abuse at some point in their lifetime. Children exposed to violence exhibit many more problems than children who do not witness violence at home, including anxiety; aggression; depression and temperament problems; less empathy and self-esteem; and lower verbal, cognitive, and motor abilities. Furthermore, the American Academy of Pediatrics reports that “children who witness domestic violence are likely to become sufferers of posttraumatic stress disorder” (Lundy, Grossman, 2005). They lack the confidence in themselves, because they are constantly told they are bad. Behavioral problems, particularly externalizing behavior, in children who witness marital violence and who are victims of abuse have been found to be worse than in children who are exposed to just one type of violence (Cox, Kotch, & Everson, 2003). Some children act up just so they can get attention from peers and elders. This is because the child does not receive the appropriate attention at home, possibly from being neglected by their parents.
Whenever we talk about the subject of domestic violence, the first concern that we have is on adults who have experienced it. However, little attention has been paid to children who were exposed to domestic violence. The tragic reality of a long term effects for who have experienced domestic violence is not only to adult but their children. The younger the children is the harder for them to understand violence and coping with it. Therefore, children who witness their parents being abused are more likely to growing up thinking hurting people is a way to protect themselves or that is okay to being hurt by other. According to a study, nearly “4.8 million acts of physical or sexual aggression are perpetrated against women while 2.9 million physically
It is known that experiencing domestic violence as a child, either as a victim or a witness, will have some sort of effect on a child as they grow up. However, research has been done that proves that children who experience domestic violence as they are growing up, especially young boys, are more likely to engage in violent and aggressive behavior in the future in their own personal relationships. “[T]he men in the exposed [to domestic violence] group were also significantly more likely to use abusive tactics in their interpersonal relationships then men in the non-exposed group.” (Kimball, 2014).
Domestic violence also greatly impacts the family structure and the relationships between the members. Domestic violence threatens both the relationship between the child and their mother and the child and their father. Children who are exposed to domestic violence do not have an emotionally available parent to foster their development and have a 30-60% higher risk for being abused by the perpetrator (NCADV, 2007); when the father is the perpetrator of the violence, he often knows little about his children, their interests, and progress in school (Crosson-Tower, 2009, p. 84). The mother’s parenting style may also be damaged from domestic violence; the perpetrator may not allow the mother to take care of her children properly or soothe them when they are upset, which can cause the children to believe their mother does not care for them. When a mother is constantly traumatized by domestic violence, it can be more difficult for her to be present and attentive in her children’s lives due to depression, anxiety, and lack of sleep (Centre for children and families in the justice system, 2009). Domestic violence has an impact on the ability for a family to function. The perpetrator may sow divisions between the members of the family by turning them against each other, or favoring one child over the others. There may also be role reversals in families who experience domestic violence; parentification of the children and infantilizing of the mother may