Related Literature: Review Of An Electric Vehicle

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2.1 Review of Conceptual Literature
2.1.1 Electric Vehicle
Figure 2.1 shows a block diagram of an electric vehicle. It contains a battery that supplies energy, an electric motor that drives the wheels, and a controller that regulates the energy flow to the motor. Figure 2.1. Simple block diagram of an electric vehicle (Brant and Leitman, 2009)
2.1.2. Electric Vehicle Operation
Electric and internal combustion vehicle are almost the same when it comes to operation. An ignition key or a numeric keypad powers up the vehicle’s instrumentation panels and electronic control module (ECM). A gearshift set in Drive or Reverse engages the vehicle. Every time the brake pedal is released, the vehicle may slow down in a way like an internal combustion vehicle. When the driver pushes the accelerator pedal, a signal travels to the ECM, which in turn applies a current and voltage from the battery system to the electric motor, where the amount depends on the degree to which the accelerator pedal is pressed down. Torque is then applied by the motor to the EV wheels. Since power/torque curves for electric motors are far wider than those for internal combustion (IC) engines, the acceleration of an EV can be significantly faster. Most EVs have a built-in feature known as regenerative braking, which is triggered when the accelerator pedal is released or the brake pedal is applied. This feature captures the vehicle’s kinetic energy and sends it through the ECM to the battery pack. Regenerative braking applies the
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Having the knowledge of the individual functions of each of these components and how they integrate to operate the vehicle is important. (Dhameja,

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