Determinants of job satisfaction are various features of the job environment and which are considered the causes of job satisfaction. These features include characteristics of jobs and job tasks, as well as various aspects of the organization (Spector, 2000). According to Spector (1997), determinants of job satisfaction can be classified into two major categories; First, the job environment itself and factors associated with the job are important influences on job satisfaction. This includes how people are treated, the nature of job tasks, relations with other people in the workplace, and rewards. Second, there are individual factors that the person brings to the job. This includes both personality and prior experiences; both categories of the determinants often work together to influence employee job satisfaction. While Furnham (1992) and Ting (1996, 1997) noted that despite the variety of variables suggested as having a major, minor or moderating effects on job satisfaction, it is possible to divide these factors into three distinct groups (1) Job characteristics, these included five sub variables: supervisory position, skill utilization, satisfaction with pay, satisfaction with the tasks, and satisfaction with working conditions (2) Organizational characteristics, these included two sub
How many practices are done for various types of employee motivation can influx the performance of employee in workplace? Also this study analyzes the basic motivation opinion and approaches. Knowing these basic opinion and approaches give authorization to organization senior managers to taking decision about types of motivation.
Motivation can be a key-contributing factor in employee performance. It is of great importance to an organization to recognize ways in which it can use employee motivation to positively affect employee performance. The methods used by organizations to motivate its employees are essential in determining how they affect employee performance. There are both positive and negative motivational tools that may be explored. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between motivation and employee performance.
Motivation is to achieve a desired outcome such as completing a task or project quickly and to a high standard for reward and recognition through enthusiasm. What motivates employees at work? According to Herzberg et al, 1957 - the happiness of staff at work depends on the existing working conditions, the status of the job and the pay and benefits package. While these so called hygiene factors keep workers satisfied initially, only if the work is challenging, efforts are rewarded and responsibility is given does it lead to long term motivation. For this to work, the company needs to create policies and practises that encourage motivation and performance.
There are as many different methods of motivating employees today as there are companies operating in the global business environment. Still, some strategies are prevalent across all organizations striving to improve employee motivation. The best employee motivation efforts will focus on what the employees deem to be important. It may be that employees within the same department of the same organization will have different motivators. Many organizations today find that flexibility in job design and reward systems has resulted in employees ' increased longevity with the company, improved productivity, and better morale.
Positive work environment: a culture where junior employees are given fair amount of responsibility and are allowed to challenge themselves is one where employees are more enthused to work and enjoy what they do.
According to Department of Labor in U.S., averagely employee work for 8hours per day during weekdays and 84 percent of employers do same work everyday at their workplace. Thus indicates that the majority of employers must do their best to create a low stress and inspiring work environment to yield greater productivity, so job satisfaction and job performance are important. This is only possible by implementing positive psychology in workplace. This means creating an environment that is relatively enjoyable and productive which is only possible by creating a work schedule which do not lead to emotional and physical distress. Employees who feels satisfied, valued, and happy at work typically do far better than those who feel disgruntled or overlooked (Thompson, 2012).
Kelleher (1996) list nine elements that directly impact the work environment: excessive workload, inadequate time to complete the assigned task, poor supervision, uncertain organizational climate, insufficient authority to meet job responsibilities, unclear responsibilities or job functions, philosophical differences between the organization and employee, unexpected or significant change at work or at home, and unanswered or unresolved frustrations.
Organizations have become more challenging today. It is not for any particular organization but affects all the organization. Organizations are seeking to improve the performance. Many organizations are realized that human resources are of advantage and sustaining of the organization for a long term. It is significant that work environment play a positive role in exerting greater efforts from the employee. Thus positive work environment can be created with the help of organization climate intervention. Positive organizational climate motives the employees to perform well and rewards.
The job characteristics model is one of the most influential attempts to design jobs with increased motivational properties. Proposed by Hackman and Oldham, the model describes five core job dimensions leading to three critical psychological states, resulting in work-related outcomes.
The topic in the workplace that I have chosen to discuss is that of motivation in the workplace. Problems of motivation can cause performance issues, which cost businesses thousands of dollars each year (Nordmeyer). Low motivation delays employees from completing their work and causes many mistakes made within the workplace (Nordmeyer). The definition of motivation is the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, as well as persistence of effort, towards attaining a goal (Robbins, p. 175). Motivation is a big issue for many employers when it comes to keeping their staff motivated and happy at work. When an employee is unhappy, they tend to be unmotivated. Many individuals are motivated by different things within the workplace and one deterrent can be when an employer is hostile towards their employees or has a lack of respect for employees. Another factor which may lead to unmotivated employees is when a company shows a lack of appreciation to an employee as well as gives off the attitude that the employee needs to bend over backwards for the company but the company does offer incentive to do so or understand the needs of the employee.
After reviewing the list of the recommended topics contained in the Research and Analysis Project Guidelines, I narrowed down my project topic choice to four (4) and subsequently, I had (2) options left between project topic number 6 and 8. Finally, I decided to research on Project Topic number 6 - “The key factors or indicators in the motivation of employees in an organization”
Job satisfaction is the positive feeling about a job in evaluating characteristics, interactions, and dynamics (Robbins & Judge, 2009, p. 79). Conversely, job dissatisfaction occurs when employees have a negative feeling about a job whether it is a dislike for the organizational culture or a job-personality mismatch. Warning signs of job dissatisfaction are negative employee behaviors such as decrease productivity, increase absenteeism, and increase turnover (Stretch, 2009a, s.16). These factors coupled with withdrawn employees, reward misallocation, and poor employee attitudes can increase costs for firms (Podsakoff, Whiting, Podsakoff, & Blume, 2009, p. 123). Moreover, job-personality mismatches can lead to employee dissatisfaction and higher turnover, and high customer dissatisfaction can cause employee dissatisfaction (Robbins & Judge, 2009, pp. 83).
Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology is devoted to the study of employee behavior in the workplace and understanding the issues facing organizations and employees in today’s complex and ever changing environment. Motivation refers to the set of forces that influence people to choose various behaviors among several alternatives available to them. An organization depends on the ability of management to provide a positive, fostering and motivating environment for its employees in order to increase profits, productivity and lower turnover rates of its employees. The purpose of this paper is to discuss and compare six academic journal articles and explore the behavior, job, and need based theories of motivation that can aid management in motivating and understanding their employees. Finding that delicate balance to can sometimes be elusive so effectively learning how to motivate by understanding, controlling and influencing factors to manipulate behavior and choices that are available to employees can produce the desired outcome.
Thus, for instance, research, dedicated to job characteristics and carried out in correlation with working place projecting, testify that the very content of work and autonomy by its implementation represent two most important motivation factors correlated with labor. As research indicated, other main components of job satisfaction are interesting and difficult job without time for tedium and job giving a man one certain status.4