From an early age, our society begins to construct gender identities. Males are pressed to learn “suitable” gender roles in accordance to the masculine expectations our society has created. This means from a very early age boys are taught what it means to be a man. Porter’s way to explain masculine socialization is through what is known as the “man box.” Inside the box is a list of socially valued expectations that compose what manhood is about. The box includes expectations/guidelines such as, “don’t cry or openly express emotions (with the exception of anger), do not show weakness or fear, demonstrate power control especially over women (aggression dominance), be a protector, do not be “like a woman,” be heterosexual, do not be “like a gay man,” be tough, athletic, and strong, do not need help, and view women as property/objects.” This idea of manhood is instilled in young boys head and continues to stay with them for the rest of their lives. A fear
They were traditional and only focused on problems and their causes. The therapy models of the 1980s and 1990s took a pragmatic approach where they viewed the therapist as a collaborator in their treatment and not the decision maker of patients (Murdock, 2009). All these changes in strategy were the result of the feminism marches in the political field of the U.S.A during the late 1970s. One of their claims was that the 1970s models held assumptions regarding what constituted normal families and how they affected the emotional health of patients. However, in reality families differed in structure from race and gender factors. Families deviated from the ‘ideal’ structure. The new therapy models, therefore, applied the ecological perspective of the systems theory. Families could now be analyzed from the environment they stayed in including the political, economic, and cultural perspectives (Murdock,
“A man is at his youngest when he thinks he is a man, not yet realizing that his actions must show it.” Was said by a famous english writer named Mary Renault.In the reading “Bros before Hoes:The Guy Code” by Michael Kimmel he explains this unwritten yet critical set of
Relational Theory There has been some recent argument against the current understanding of the place of relationships in psychotherapy. While most theories argue that relationships are important or even essential to good mental health, other theorists claim that the way relationships are conceptualized in these theories is insufficient (Slife & Wiggins, 2009). Most of these theories conceptualize the individuals first, and then talk about the way these individuals relate. Relationships are often understood as two or more independent self-contained individuals interacting (Slife & Wiggins, 2009). An alternative way to look at relationships is offered by relational psychoanalysts and other theorists, though again it should be noted that
Theoretical Assumptions of Relational Cultural Theory Human Nature Proponents of relational-cultural therapy (RCT) reject an intrapsychic explanation of distress and instead operate based on an understanding that external social structures and interpersonal relationships have a significant effect on emotional and psychological well-being. In addition, a non-deterministic view of human development is taken and special attention is paid to the influence of various socialization processes, such as gender-role socialization (Miller, 1976). According to Miller and Stiver (1997), a person 's sense of self develops in the context of their interpersonal relationships. Growth is achieved through interacting with others and developing meaningful connections, rather than through striving for independence. While traditional theories typical focus on independence as an indicator of mature functioning and psychological health, RCT emphasizes the importance of interdependence. From Miller 's (1976) perspective, personal growth
Kroeber and Kluckhohn (1962) identify over 150 scientific definitions of the concept of culture. Indeed, many authors have tried to define culture and this is why there are so many definitions and that a unique one is hard to find. First of all, Kroeber and Kluckholn (1952) assume that culture is a suite of patterns, implicit and explicit, “of and for behaviour acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups, including their embodiments in artefacts” (p.47). Later, Hofstede adds that culture is “the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one category of people from another” (Hofstede, 1991, p.51). This definition is the most widely accepted one amongst practitioners. For Winthrop (1991), culture is the distinctive models of thoughts, actions and values that composed members of a society or a social group. In other words,
As Audre Lorde discusses in her paper “Age, Race, Class and Sex: Women Redefining Difference,” racial and cultural experiences should not be other from gendered experiences. We must “recognize differences among women who are our equals...and use each others’ difference to enrich our visions and our joint struggles” (Lorde). My specific experiences of gender hierarchy in the household and parental controlled sexuality are unique to my racial, cultural, sexual, and socioeconomic background. However, they are still universal to many groups of women in that they lend to our society’s construction of gender roles and expectations. The aggregate personal experiences of women from all backgrounds collectively reinforce overarching gender roles. In recognizing that these experiences are universal, we can learn to break down gender boundaries and give women the control to define their own
Systemic therapy was derived from concepts that where founded in general systems theory and cybernetics which examines the study of communication and control systems. Systemic therapy is an ideology that works with families and those who are in close relationships to cultivate change. These changes are viewed in terms of
The concept of the masculinity of real men and femininity of real women has been questioned from one age to the next/ from one culture to another. Upon interviewing three people I have been able to identify cultural patterns. When one looks at society from a broad viewpoint we see a divergence among cultures because of the cultural bias’s implanted from an early age. Additionally, movements by men and women have been fortified because of the reactions to the rationales projected by different cultures. Throughout society the concept of real men and women has been inundated by differentiating cultures allowing for a mixing of belief systems however, someone’s principal belief comes from their family heritage.
Altilio, t.,& Otis-green, S. (2011). Oxford textbook of palliative social work. Oxford University Press USA. Pg. g380 Chrisler, J. C., & McCreary, D. R. (2010). Handbook of gender research in psychology (Vol. 1). New York NY: Springer. ELKINS, RICHARD: KING, DAVE (2006) the transgender phenomenon. Sage .Page 13-14 Oliven, John F. (1965).
The identities that each person possesses is influenced according to their attitudes, values and beliefs embedded in their culture. When people hear the word cult, the images of satan worshipping, animal sacrifices and evil, pagan rituals automatically come to mind. However, in reality, the majority of cults do not involve these things and are in fact simply a religious system with alternate beliefs. The word though refers to an unorthodox sect whose members distort the original doctrines of the religion. Heaven’s Gate is a cult that is centred in California, founded by Marshall Herff Applewhite and Bonnie Nettles in 1993. They are a UFO based ‘destructive doomsday’ cult who believed that evil space aliens called ‘Luciferians’ had kept
Interpersonal Theories of Gender are described as factors that influence the development of masculinity and femininity. Our text states, “Psychodynamics theory emphasizes
Introduction: Murray Bowens family systems theory focuses on ordering and defining relationships and conceptualizes the potential for growth within humans (Metcalf, 2011, p. 39). With this is mind this report aims to explore the history, concepts and principles of Murray Bowen’s family systems theory as well as apply these concepts to
Carl Rogers’s belief was that the clients have the ability to see their own growth potential and can get there with only guidance from a therapist (Person-Centered Therapy (Rogerian Therapy), 2015). His thought was if therapist helped clients with empathy
1. Cultural relativism is one of the core concepts of anthropology. Are there any limits to this concept? If so, what are they? Is there a place in anthropology for the idea of universal human rights?