Relationship Between Milk Market Participation Of Smallholder Households And Women's Intra Household Bargaining Power
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In this paper, we study the relationship between the milk market participation of smallholder households and women`s intra-household bargaining power in Ethiopia. The main objective of integrating Ethiopian farmers into the market is to increase household income. Our data show that household income is indeed substantially higher in milk market participating households (101 versus 49 birr daily). This higher income of participating households is almost completely earned by selling raw milk to the market. The other way of receiving milk income -- processing raw milk into butter and cottage cheese for sale at the local market – is much less important in market participant households than in non-participant households.
This difference has…show more content… This is an important issue, as previous research (Adeto, 2000; Mahmud, Shah, & Becker, 2011) suggests that women`s share in household income determines their participation in household decision making and their intra-household bargaining power. Moreover, Agarwal (1997), Quisumbing & Maluccio, 2000 and Njuki et al. (2011) indicated that income in the hands of women enhances the welfare of household members more than income in the hands of men. Hence, the income shift from women to men in market participant households can negatively affect the women`s intra-housheold bargaining power, as well as the other household member`s welfare.
To study the difference in women’s bargaining power between spouses from milk-market participant and non-participant households, a resource sharing game was conducted. In this game, husbands and wives were asked to propose an amount of money to be transferred to their partner and to indicate their expectation regarding the amount their partner would transfer to them. This game revealed substantial differences in the amounts proposed and expected between milk-market participant and non-participant households. Women`s expectations and the amounts actually proposed by their husbands were significantly higher in market participant compared to non-participant households. Consistently, men`s expectations and the