Renaissance And Discovery Of The Renaissance

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Chapter 10 Outline: Renaissance and Discovery
The Renaissance in Italy
Jacob Burckhardt, a Swiss historian, described the Renaissance as the “prototype of the modern world” in his book Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860). People became to approach the world empirically and draw rational conclusions based on observation. Burckhardt saw the emergence of the modern world emerge from that of the pre-modern, or medieval, period. Some criticize Burckhardt for overlooking the continuity between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance . Scholars agree that the Renaissance (1375-1527)was a transition from medieval to modern times
Different from the feudal fragmentation of medieval times, Renaissance Europe was characterized by growing national consciousness and political centralization, an urban economy based on organized commerce and capitalism, and growing lay control of secular thought and culture
The Italian City State
When commerce revived in the eleventh century, Italian merchants mastered the organizational skills needed for trade: book-keeping, scouting new markets, securing new markets, and banking. During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, trade-rich cities became powerful city-states, dominating the political and economic life of the surrounding countryside. Incessant warfare between pope and emperor and the Guelf [propapal] and Ghibelline [proimperial] factions created an environment in which city-states could emerge and expand as the two major powers
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