Essay on Renal Failure

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Through this assignment we will explore the causes, the diagnostic exams, subjective and objective signs and symptoms, the dietary modifications a nurse should teach, the medical management of acute renal failure, and finally the short and long term goals a nurse should make for their client. There are three causes of acute renal failure; prerenal causes, renal causes, and post renal causes. Prerenal causes are due to such factors as dehydration i.e... vomiting diarrhea, or sweating, or poor fluid intake. Other factors could also include weak or irregular blood flow to and from the kidneys because of an obstruction in the renal artery or vein. Intrarenal kidney failure is damage directly to the kidney. Causes include sepsis (the…show more content…
In the intrarenal phase ESR is increased. The easiest of all exams in the urinalysis exam. A urinalysis checks for color, clarity, odor, specific gravity, ptt, protein, glucose, crystals, bacteria, leukocyte esterase in the urine. Azotemia is an increase of nitrogen and creatine as a result of renal failure. However in prerenal phase azotemia is decreased from circulatory disturbances causing decreased renal perfusion. In intrarenal azotemia continues to decrease when more of the nephrons are non-functional. Lastly and least preferred by the client is kidney biopsy. A needle is pierced through the skin and into the kidney. This is then sent out for testing. The majority of these tests will be determined by the signs and symptoms the client is displaying. Some of the signs and symptoms for acute renal failure are asthenia, uremia, oliguria, and anuria. Uremia is both subjective and objective. Uremia can cause nausea, confusion, seizures, irregular heart rhythm and fluid in the lungs. Asthenia is subjective because the client. Symptoms include lethargy and lack of energy and strength. Oliguria is an objective symptom. Oliguria is decreased urine production. Other symptoms accompany oliguria such as vomiting, fever, dizziness, light headed, and rapid pulse. The urine is a dark/amber color due to the infection in the kidneys. Anuria is an objective symptom due to the fact that it has to be measured. Anuria is the lack of

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