The World Health Organization (WHO) (2006A) defines COPD as a disease state characterized by airflow limitation that is not wholly reversible. The airflow limitation is usually both progressive and associated with abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gases. John's chronic bronchitis is defined, clinically, as the presence of a chronic productive cough for 3 months in each of 2 successive years, provided other causes of chronic cough have been ruled out. (Mannino, 2003). The British lung Foundation (BLF) (2005) announces that chronic bronchitis is the inflammation and eventual scarring of the lining of the bronchial tubes which is the explanation for John's dyspnea. The BLF (2005) believe that when the bronchi become inflamed less air is able to flow to and from the lungs and once the bronchial tubes have been irritated over a long period of time, excessive mucus is produced. This increased sputum results from an increase in the size and number of goblet cells (Jeffery, 2001) resulting in John's excessive mucus production. The lining of the bronchial tubes becomes thickened and an irritating cough develops, (Waugh & Grant 2004) which is an additional symptoms that john is experiencing.
There are no cure for this disease. However, there are different treatment to prevent further deterioration of the lungs function in order to improve the quality of life of the patient by increasing capacity of their physical activity. One of the main severe complication a patient with COPD can develop is exacerbation. Increased breathlessness, increased sputum volume and purulent sputum are the signs and symptoms of exacerbation. Early detection of the signs of exacerbation can help keep the condition of the patient from worsening. The treatments of COPD mainly aims at controlling the symptoms of exacerbation such as taking inhalers. Patients who are over the age of 35 and ex-smokers with chronic cough and bronchitis are recommended to have spirometer (NICE, 2004). This is because it is possible to delay or prevent patients from developing severe case of COPD is identified before they lose their lungs functions. Oxygen therapy is another treatment for COPD as the patients with this condition has high
Introduction R.W. appears with progressive difficulty getting his breath while doing simple tasks, and also having difficulty doing any manual work, complains of a cough, fatigue, and weight loss, and has been treated for three respiratory infections a year for the past 3 years. On physical examination, CNP notice clubbing of
I will analyse the prevalence of the condition and what the potential causes may be. My interests have been directed to pre hospital care and community lead treatment packages, which are potentially available to the patient, as this is the acute environment, which I will have contact with in my employment as a paramedic. The initial reading was to understand COPD as a chronic condition, what is COPD? and its prevalence in the population. The (World health organisation, 2000), states that one in four deaths in the world are caused by COPD. In 2010 (Vos T Flaxman etal, 2012), says globally there were approximately 329 million, which is 4.8% of the population who are affected by this chronic condition, In the UK (NICE, 2010), have estimated that 3 million people suffer from COPD, with more yet to be diagnosed. This information about the amount of people living with this condition was surprising, as I little knowledge of its existence. During the early 1960’s (Timothy Q. Howes, 2005), says the term COPD had been designated as a single term unifying all the chronic respiratory diseases. Since then the term COPD, has been sub divided in to three umbrella areas, Bronchitis, Emphysema and Chronic asthma, which are separate conditions, which I have been previously aware of as their individual conditions. The 58 year old patient who we visited,
The study included 100 patients with COPD. All patients fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. According to its demographic and clinical parameters and treatment groups differ among themselves. Completed the study, all patients included in the study. The therapy in all patients with a clinically meaningful improvement of symptoms was observed.
Patients with COPD become short of breath, hyperventilate and become very tired by using all efforts on respiratory and axillary muscles in order to breath and effects their activity of daily living such as walking up the stairs, putting on socks/shoes. On physical assessment, patient would be observed the appearance of the thoracic cage, for any deformity, an inadequate chest expansion and auscultation for adventitious sounds. Patients with COPD are often diagnosed with emphysema, where alveoli of the lungs damaged and these damaged tiny sacs cannot be seen directly in physical exam. There are diagnostic tests would be necessary to perform such as CT or X-ray scans of the chest. Additional tests would be performed to measure pulmonary function test, arterial blood gases and sputum collection if necessary to determine any bacteria growth in respiratory
What clinical findings are likely in R.S. as a consequence of his COPD? There are many clinical findings the R.S is likely to be faced with as a result of his COPD. Due to the inflammation and swelling of the bronchial mucosa as a result of the COPD the R.S. will have an irreversible productive cough. His cough will be accompanied by dyspnea, wheezing, and large amounts of mucus collecting in the bronchioles. This is caused because the lining in the bronchioles are constantly irritated and become inflamed. Mucus forms in the airways which make it harder to breath. The R.S. will wheeze when breathing. The R.S. is likely to have chills, muscle aches, and fatigue associated with the pneumonia. These are just the outward signs and symptoms.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, commonly known as COPD, is a collection of lung conditions or diseases that, all together, block the flow of air into the lungs. This condition makes it hard for the patient have dyspnea, anoxia, or eventually apnea. COPD usually starts off small and gradually gets worse and worse over time, hints chronic in its name. Because it starts off small there are many people who have this disease but do not know it until it is further along and worse. This disease is very common for both smokers and nonsmokers and is a bigger threat to our health than most people think. < Victor >< MacGill >
Diagnosing COPD is multifactorial, as stated previously, an all-encompassing nursing assessment and patient history must be conducted. When these processes are finalized, and subjective evidence points towards COPD, it is necessary to confirm the diagnosis with objective data. The definitive way to do this is by conducting pulmonary function testing (PFT); specifically, spirometry. On top of diagnosing, spirometry, is also pertinent for staging the patients COPD (Corbridge,et al., 2012). In addition to these facets, there are several other radiologic and laboratory tests that are helpful in determining the severity of COPD; they are not so much diagnostic, as they are informative.
HOW IS IT TREATED? The goals of COPD treatment are: 1. to prevent further deterioration in lung function; 2. to alleviate symptoms; 3. To improve performance of daily activities and quality of life. The treatment strategies include: 1. quitting cigarette smoking; 2. taking medications to dilate airways (bronchodilators) and decrease airway inflammation; 3. vaccination against flu influenza and pneumonia; 4. regular oxygen supplementation; and 5. Pulmonary rehabilitation. Quitting cigarette smoking: The most effective and important treatment for COPD is to quit cigarette smoking. Patients who continue to smoke will have rapid deterioration in lung function in comparison to those who quit. The aging process itself can cause a very slow decline in lung function. Cigarette smoking can result in a
COPD COPD is a term used for Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This is an “obstructive disease”, meaning that airflow coming out of the lungs during exhalation is blocked. The blockage of airflow with COPD ,makes it very difficult for a person to breathe. Over time,
Bobby Muniz 12/5/15 A block Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Introduction Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a disease that effects the respiratory system. It is a progressive disease, which means the get gets worse as time passes ("What Is COPD?"). Although their are different types of COPD, the common similarity in the disease is increasing breathlessness. The main symptoms are increasing of breathlessness, frequent coughing, wheezing and tightness in the chest. One major issue is that when people age they assume that these COPD symptoms are symptoms of aging. People think their bodies are just waring out. This makes it hard to diagnose people with the disease, because they are unaware of the symptoms.
Analysis of Clinical Presentation Mr. HS is a 78-year-old retired male, who presented to the emergency room at Northeast Methodist Hospital initially on February 11, 2011, with complaints of shortness of breath and coughing. He was diagnosed as having a COPD Exacerbation and was placed on antibiotic therapy and was released home. He was also advised at that time to complete the entire course of antibiotics and return to his primary treating physician if his condition did not improve.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, also known as COPD, is the third leading cause of death in the United States. COPD includes extensive lungs diseases such as emphysema, non-reversible asthma, specific forms of bronchiectasis, and chronic bronchitis. This disease restricts the flow of air in and out of the lungs. Ways in which these limitations may occur include the loss of elasticity in the air sacs and throughout the airways, the destruction of the walls between air sacs, the inflammation or thickening of airway walls, or the overproduction of mucus in airways which can lead to blockage. Throughout this paper I am going to explain the main causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and ways to reduce COPD.
The second nursing concern is impaired gas exchange for patient with COPD, this may be related to; alter oxygen supply, alveoli destruction and alveolar capillary membrane changes. The nursing intervention of this would be, to elevate the head of the bed up to help the patient breathe easier, to assess