Repetitive SRCs Lead to Changes in the White Matter of a Developing Brain

2135 WordsFeb 2, 20189 Pages
A total of 11 studies were selected for this review to prove the hypothesis that repetitive SRCs lead to changes in the white matter of a developing brain. The aim of the study is to ascertain the changes in the myelination of the CNS due to concussion through DTI scans. After a thorough review, it is clear that multiple sport-related concussions in young athletes cause alteration in the white matter of the brain (Barkhoudarian et al., 2011; Bazarian et al., 2012; Cubon et al., 2011; Keightly et al., 2014; Marchi et al., 2013; Prins et al., 2010; Smits et al., 2011; Toledo et al., 2012; Wilde et al., 2011; Wozniak et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2010). This study consists of 3 systematic reviews, 6 prospective cohort studies, 1 animal model study and 1 cross-sectional study. The results are presented in the above order. The review study written by Barkhoudarian et al explored the pathophysiology of concussive brain injury in young athletes. Sport-related concussions cause diffuse axonal injury (DAI) or white matter shearing injury (Barkhoudarian et al., 2011; Wozniak et al., 2007). They disrupt the axonal membrane leading to a disrupted normal ionic crossing and increased calcium influx. This flow of calcium not only causes mitochondrial-swelling leading to possible apoptosis but also prevents microtubular function (Halstead et al., 2010; Barkhoudarian et al., 2011). All these factors together can prevent axonal transport and form axonal blebs (Figure 6), hence altering the

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