Reproductive and Therapeutic Cloning: Dolly The Sheep

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New research techniques have made it possible to engineer and explore differences in the sets of chromosomes in organisms. This has been a technological revolution during the last decade. Allowing scientists to be able to explore DNA to a new extent. During the process of this research it has come apparent that foreign DNA inserted into self-replicating genetic elements such as bacteria plasmids can replicate. This breakthrough has also shown that the plasmids that have been used can also be used to change the genetic constitution of other organisms (1).
Through the process mentioned above there has been an increase in the methods in which DNA, Reproductive and Therapeutic cloning and the processes that happen in order for cloning to
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Therapeutic cloning goes through the same processes as reproductive but instead of making a whole new organism this is used to form stem cells. They take the nucleus from the somatic cell and then relocate it to an unfertilized egg which has had its nucleus removed. This cell then starts to develop and after 4-5 days it can then have the embryonic stem cells removed which can be used to make many other stem cells that are identical to the cell that the DNA was originally taken from. Figure 1 - Cloning of somatic cells

Two organisms that are exact genetic copies of each other are clones. Although cloning does happen naturally, an example identical twins, the most common discussed topic of cloning is what happens in the lab. Somatic Cell Nucleus Transfer and Artificial Embryo Twinning are the two ways in which cloning can occur in the lab. Artificial Embryo Twinning process is just like natural processes of identical twin creation, but instead of the early stages of development when the embryo splits happening naturally, occurs in a petri dish in a laboratory. The fertilized embryo is developing in a petri dish when it is split manually forming two individual cells that then proceed to divide and develop on its own. Then being placed into a surrogate mother to continue the stages of development like it would naturally. They are genetically identical as they come from the same fertilized egg just like natural identical twins are made. Artificial Embryo Twinning
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