Reptile Turtle Evolution

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At least 270 million years6 of evolution within the reptile crown clade has produced a panoply of cranial forms. From the hyperkinetic anatomy of snakes to the encephalized and highly visual architecture of birds, the reptile skull is an increasingly popular model for understanding the evolution and development of vertebrate adaptation11, 12. Turtles are an important yet enigmatic piece of this evolutionary puzzle. The earliest uncontroversial stem turtles1, 13 exhibit an anapsid skull with an adductor chamber concealed by bone
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