Research And Investigation Into Differential Validity And Differential Prediction

1344 WordsApr 13, 20176 Pages
Research and investigation into differential validity and differential prediction has been ongoing, especially as it relates to cognitive ability tests. This is due, in part, to the apparent validity differences inherent in cognitive ability tests between minority and nonminority groups. Test bias, differential validity, and differential prediction will be discussed, along with how each of these relate to cognitive ability tests. Test bias may occur in some situations, and this can sometimes lead to adverse impact for various subgroups. The concepts surrounding differential validity can also have an effect on ethical and global considerations for an organization, which will also be explored. Differential Testing Test Bias A primary…show more content…
Therefore, although it would be ideal to use selection procedures that are highly valid, and display appropriate diversity, this may not always occur. However, simply because a test shows lower scores for a minority group does not necessarily mean the test shows bias. Differential Validity and Differential Prediction A relatively large mean difference found between various subgroups for general cognitive ability tests is suggestive of bias regarding test scores (McDaniel & Banks, 2010). This perception seems to be supported by single-group validity, which in this example, would indicate that general cognitive ability tests have validity for one subgroup, but not the other. Differential validity puts forward the concept that a test has one validity for one subgroup, and a significantly different validity for another subgroup (McDaniel & Banks, 2010). There is an issue with this line of logic though, single-group validity lacks the comparison needed to actually compare the two subgroups. Extensive research backs this up, and it has been found that differential validity is very uncommon (Berry, Barratt, Dovalina, & Zhao, 2014; Cascio & Aguinis, 2011; McDaniel & Banks, 2010). Therefore, different validities for various subgroups in not necessarily what is occurring with general cognitive ability tests, at least not very often. Instead, the issue occurring with general cognitive ability tests regarding
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