Research Ethics : Animal And Clinical Research

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Research Ethics: Animal and Clinical Research When it comes to clinical research, many people think of clinical trials, but that’s only merely a small portion of a process towards a medical development involving a process call bench to the bedside. Clinical research outline scientific investigation involving animal or human subjects helping translate basic research into new treatments that would be valuable to patients. Clinical trials can contain a variety of research under the departments of physiology and pathophysiology, health services, and mental health. Furthermore, the process of developing new treatments from the bench to the bedside come in three stages: basic research, transitional research, and clinical research. First…show more content…
Phase III Trials usually randomize compared trials, test efficacy compared to standard of care, once again test for further safety, and conclude to an effective dosage. Animal studies would be necessary based on the animals and the trials scientist are trying to conduct. Every animal is different, especially when compared to humans, but there are some in different animals that can help test based on the compound for the trials. Over time there has been numerous ethical violations in clinical research; some more significant than others. In 1906, when the Pure Food and Drug Act was passed, there were no regulations regarding the ethical use of human participants in research. There were no consumer regulations such as the Food and Drug Administration, Common Rule and Institutional Review Boards. One of the most significant events in research history involved human participants was the Nuremberg Code on December 9, 1946. American military opened criminal proceedings against several leading German physicians for their willing participation in crimes against humanity. German Physicians were charged for conducting medical experiments on thousands of concentration camp prisoners without their consent; in most of which the participants as a result either died or were permanently damaged physically. In conclusion of the trial, in 1948 the Nuremberg Code was established, making it known that participants should give consent.
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