Research Paper On HPV

660 Words3 Pages
Introduction:
HPV is a name given to multiple types of one virus - Human Papilloma Virus. HPV has 150 different types, and each subtype is given a number. More commonly called Genital Warts, HPV is one of the most common infections worldwide, and 50% of the people who engage in sex acquire it at some point in their life.

Causes:
HPV is a transmissible infection - you can get it if an infected person is in your immediate vicinity. 40 types of HPV are transmitted via sexual contact, such as by having vaginal, anal or oral sex with an infected person. It is so common that most sexually active males and females acquire it, even if they have sexual intercourse with one person. HPV transmits by contact with oral or genital mucous membranes, skin
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Approximately 70% of all cervical cancers are attributed to HPV 16 and 18. A high percentage of other cancers, such as those of the vulva, vagina and penis are also attributed to HPV infection. Cervical cancer is asymptomatic, and presents late, where it is difficult to treat. Presenting symptoms include abnormal discharge from the vagina, pelvic pain, pain during sexual intercourse, and vaginal bleeding between menstrual cycles or menopause. Therefore, it is important to get regular screening tests done if a person is susceptible to HPV infection.

Investigations:
A good history and clinical examination is sufficient for diagnosis. For women, swabs are taken from the cervix as part of a pap smear. A Pap smear detects any abnormal cells in the cervix, which may be a sign of precancerous change. A pap sample can also be used check the DNA of the virus, to detect its subtype. Women whose Pap tests are abnormal are asked to get Pap smears repeated over time, in order to detect the cancer at an early age. Pap smears are combined with HPV DNA Test for women aged over 30. In men, no specific test is needed - physical examination is sufficient for diagnosis.
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Medical treatment involves topically-applied creams. Other treatment options are laser removal, cryotherapy or surgical excision of the warts. In case of abnormal cellular changes, the first option is to wait and observe - cervical cellular changes usually resolve on their own. If abnormal cells persist, treatment targets removal of cells, which can be done by cryotherapy, laser of a cone biopsy.

Prevention:
As with every infection, HPV infection can also be prevented. HPV vaccines have recently been developed, and combined with Pap smear, have significantly reduced the prevalence of HPV infection and cervical cancer. HPV vaccines have been approved by FDA in 2006, and were introduced under the market name Gardasil. It targets the four main types of HPV; 6,11, 16 and 18. They are recommended as routine vaccines for males and females in 9 to 26 age group. However, vaccination is strictly prohibited in pregnant women. Vaccine doesn’t guarantee complete protection against HPV. A person can be infected by any of the types of HPV. Sexually active men are encouraged to use latex condoms, and women between the ages of 30 and 65 are encouraged to get Pap smears and regular
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