Osteoporosis: Bone Loss Osteoporosis is a detrimental bone condition, the tissue in the bones deteriorate and thus the bones become progressively brittle which presents a risk for rupture. Osteoporosis impacts more than 44 million Americans and is linked to a suggested 2 million bone fractures each year. According to the National
As generally stated in the introduction, osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder that involves the strength and integrity of one’s bones. The WHO defines osteoporosis as, “a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by low-bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue, increased bone fragility, and its susceptibly to recurrent fractures.” 2 The most important factor to take into account when addressing osteoporosis is the mass of bone, also referred to as, bone mineral density (BMD). As bone mass begins to decline, typically in the older population, specifically postmenopausal women, individuals are at an increased risk for fractures.3 As a result of this serious condition, many people are affected by morbidity, mortality, and economic difficulty.1
Osteoporosis, also known as porous bone, is a disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue which leads to bone fragility and an increased risks of the hip, spine, and wrist. Both men and women are affected by this (although it affects women more) but it can be prevented and treated. In the United States, more than 40 million people either already have osteoporosis or at a high risk because of low bone mass.
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a medical condition in which the bones become brittle from the loss of tissue, generally as a result of specific changes. Risk factors that take part in the disease are things such as unchangeable risks like sex, age, race, family history and the size of the individual. Other risk factors include hormone levels and medication as well as dietary factors and life choices. Life choices that play a role are sedentary lifestyle these are people who spend a lot of time sitting have a higher risk of osteoporosis than do their more-active counterparts, weight-bearing exercise is beneficial for your bones to ensure the bone remolding cycle ensures them to grow strong (MayoClinic, 2013). Common symptoms that one should take into
396). When blood calcium needs to be replenished, the trabecular bone gives up minerals. The loss of trabecular bone is significantly apparent in men and women in their 30s. However, the trabecular bone can start to desintegrate whenever calcium withdrawals exceed deposits. Furthermore, cortical bone also gives up calcium, however this occurs at a slower and steadier pace. The cortical bone begins to give up ususally around someone in their 40s. Therefore, as bone loss continues, bone density begins to decline, which causes osteoporosis to become apparent. For instance, "Bones become so fragil that even the body's own weight can overburden the spine - vertebrae may suddenly disintegrate and crush down, painfully pinching major nerves" (Whitney & Rolfes, 2013, p. 396). Nonmodifiable risk factors for osteoporosis tend to occur in the older age, female gender, smaller frame Caucasian, Asian, or Hispanic/Latino. In addition, it occurs in people with family history of osteoporosis or fractures. However, modifiable risk factors include, sedentary lifestyle, diet inadequare in clacium and vitamin D, diet excessive in protein, sodium, caffeine, cigarrette smoking, alcohole abuse and low
Osteoporosis is a major public heath treat for more than 28 million Americans, 80 percent of whom are women. In the U.S. today, 10 million individuals
Osteoporosis is developed when the bones lose minerals (such as calcium) too quickly and the body cannot replace them fast enough. This causes bone density to decrease and the bones to become porous, making them more fragile and susceptible to breaking. There are many risk factors for osteoporosis, some of which can be changed, some of which cannot. Those that cannot be changed include gender (women are more likely to develop osteoporosis), age (older people have a higher risk), physical build (smaller people have more of a chance), and family history (those with parents who have/had osteoporosis are more at risk). However, factors that can be changed include the level of sex hormones, diet, inactive lifestyle, excessive use of alcohol, smoking,
There are two types of osteoporosis that have been identified which are primary and secondary. Osteoporotic bones are thin and brittle and are prone to fracture. The bone loss involves both compact and spongy bone. In type I osteoporosis, which occurs typically in postmenopausal women, spongy bone loss predominates, occurring most prominently in the vertebrae and distal radius (Gueldner, Burke, Smiciknas-Wright, 2000). Major complications of type I osteoporosis are crush fractures of the vertebral bodies and the distal end of the radius. Type II, or old-age, osteoporosis is characterized by a proportional loss of compact and spongy bone of the long bones (Gueldner, Burke, Smiciknis-Wright). The most serious fractures of old age are those of
Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a disease of bone that leads to an increased risk of fracture. In osteoporosis the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. Osteoporosis is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) in women
Osteoporosis is a condition of the bones, which causes weak bones that break easier. According to the FDA, women are five times more likely to develop osteoporosis than men. Currently, there is no cure for osteoporosis but there are lifestyle changes that you can make to slow it down and medications you can take to build stronger, healthier bones. Osteoporosis can run in families. It occurs when a person does not get enough calcium and vitamin D in the diet, as well as not enough exercise. Women who have gone through menopause have a higher chance of having osteoporosis. Anyone can develop osteoporosis but there are some risk factors to keep in mind that increase your chances. Women, people with thin, small frames, a family history of broken bones and/or stooped posture, women who went through menopause before age 45, people who have had eating disorders, and people over age 50 have a higher chance of getting osteoporosis. Also, people who have used certain medicines for extended periods of time, including certain hormones, seizure medications, and certain drugs for asthma, arthritis, or cancer, are at a higher risk. To determine if you have osteoporosis, a test can be done that uses x-rays or sound waves to determine your bone density. Your doctor will know which test would be best for you. To lower your chances of developing osteoporosis, you can make a few lifestyle changes and take medications to help build stronger bones. Be sure you are getting enough calcium. If
Other risk factors include too much or too little of a certain hormone in their body can lead to a higher risk for osteoporosis. One of the massive risk factor for developing osteoporosis is the
There are multiple factors that can result in osteoporosis. The unpreventable risk factors include, age, race, lifestyle choices, and medical conditions or treatments. The main determining factor being age.
Today osteoporosis is a very common disease that is brought on for various reasons. It is not one hundred percent preventable but there are ways you can ease the pain and or prevent it from getting worse. Family history and poor habits can bring osteoporosis on so it is important that people are aware of the outcomes of their poor health choices.
Osteoporosis is a disease which causes weak bones and ultimately leads to fractures among old age peoples. Although osteoporosis occurs in both genders, but it is mainly known as women disease. Thirteen percent of men above 50 will present with an osteoporotic fracture in their lifetime, as compared with 40 % of females (46). Osteoporosis is of two types; primary osteoporosis (post menopausal osteoporosis) and secondary osteoporosis (senile osteoporosis) (47).
Causes and Pathophysiology of Osteoporosis According to the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (2014), the major cause of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women is low levels of serum follicle-stimulating hormone and estrogen which usually occurs in early menopause. Biophysical issues occur when the ovaries stop functioning with menopause and no longer produce estrogen which in turn puts menopausal women at high risk of increased bone loss and consequently increased risk of osteoporosis (Ashford, LeCroy & Williams 2016). Additionally, research suggests that women with a first pregnancy before 27 years of age and no history of breastfeeding were more prone to developing osteoporosis than those women who had a first pregnancy and breastfed at 27 years of age or older (Hirani et al. 2014). According to Chang, Hong & Yang (2007), genetic factors and family history are another influence of osteoporosis development. Osteoporosis can also result from nutritional imbalances such as low calcium, low vitamin D and high phosphate intake (Hirani et al. 2014). While physical risk factors include sedentary lifestyle, low body mass index and lack of sun exposure (Okumus et al. 2013). Hirani et al. (2014) states that high caffeine consumption and smoking habits are lifestyle risk factors as they are known to