Have you ever been lost in a location foreign to you? Typically, a person who is lost will use a map to gather their bearings before heading off in the correct direction. A similar approach can be used to discuss recent brain mapping technology, the primary research of Dr. Allen Jones. Dr. Allen Jones is a brain research whose ultimate goal is to unveil a complete map of the human brain, using recent brain imaging and histological techniques. In his TED talk entitled, A Map of the Brain, Dr. Allen Jones discusses a brief overview of the anatomical structures of the brain, as well as, the methods and conclusions of his brain research.
In 2011, a group of Harvard researchers reported in Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging the results of their study on a group of participants who practiced mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Using magnetic resonance images, they found that those who practiced MBSR had increases in gray matter concentrations in the brain. They concluded participating in MBSR is associated with changes in gray matter concentration in the brain regions involved in learning and memory processes, emotion regulation, self-referential processing and perspective taking (Holzel, 2011).
Numerous researches and experiments have been done based on whether the human being possess one brain divided into two parts (left and right hemisphere) or whether we have two different brains working together. The psychologist Roger W. Sperry was the first on research this topic with some experiments on animals. Then, he later started working with Michael Gazzaniga. They were able to find split-brain patients. Those patients had their brain split as way of reducing or stopping uncontrollable epilepsy. Many agreed to participate in the experiments. The experiments that they held focused on finding out what kind of limitations would each brain have if they operated independently, how the 5 senses
Brain mapping is the study of the brain using various techniques, such as cellular biology and imaging. It is a very difficult process and can take a long time to accomplish. Brain mapping maps areas of the brain to functions, such as vision and creativity. It also looks to see how the environment can change a brain’s structure, like how learning and aging can physically change the brain. We are using brain mapping to see if we can cure bipolar and other brain problems. Brain mapping is difficult because the brain has a ton of pathways. If we find out how to map the brain correctly, we will know much more about what affects the brain and what parts of the brain control different functions.
The brain can be considered the most complex organ in the body and the centrepiece of the nervous system. Although the brain works as a unified whole, neuroscientists have identified areas within it that perform specific functions. This makes the brain interconnected by three different layers: the central core, the limbic system, and the cerebral cortex. All of which contain structures that regulate everyday life and psychological function.
This concept majorly deals with how the nervous system functions. It comes from the concept of neuroscience. The processes of physiology also contribute to the concept of neurophysiology. The nervous system controls all the functions of the body. It also contributes to how the mind operates. With regard to the explanation of the mind body problem, it is quite evident it has a relationship with the concept of neurophysiology. This topic attracted many scientists who were greatly interested in conducting further research and studies to
Biological psychology, of biopsychology, is the application of the principles of biology to the study of mental processes in terms of bodily mechanisms. The view that psychological processes have biological (or physiological) correlates, is the basic assumption of the whole field of biological psychology. Biological psychology is a hopeful domain, one that has much to offer in terms of improving the quality of life of the healthy as well as those suffering from disorders. It also contributed important therapeutic data on a variety of conditions, including: Parkinson 's Disease, Alzheimer 's Disease, Clinical depression, Schizophrenia and a lot others. Humans have very complex nervous system, they use neurons and neurotransmitters to make the highest active communication network throughout the body. “most of the body’s neurons are found in the central nervous system(CNS), which consists of the brain and spinal cord” (psychology 5th edition). “Neuroscience emphasizes that the brain and nervous system are central to understanding behavior, thought, and emotion. (Van Horn, 2014; Zhao & others, 2014). Therefore, for biological psychologist all that is psychological is first physiological. All thoughts, feeling & behavior ultimately have a biological cause.” We are benefited from biological approach for diagnosing and treating human brains Ex. Schizophrenia. Scientists are also able to create medications for different types of illnesses. Besides having psychologists
The concept of neuroplasticity has long been questioned. The term of “neuroplasticity” did not even come about until the mid-late 20th century. When the term “plastic” was used to describe the brain by a select few neuroscientists, they were laughed at and the term was never thought of as a description for the human brain. The human brain was seen as a closed circuit and one that once you had it, you definitely had it. Scientists thought the brain would not develop anymore past a certain point in your life. Norman Doidge brings the concept of neuroplasticity into reality in his book “The Brain that Changes Itself,” a book about the triumphs in the frontier of brain science.
Although each subject is different and will relax in different ways and at different speeds some will easily let go of the tension their body has been holding when other struggle to unwind and relax, the first noticeable physical sign is the change in breathing a noticeable slowing of the breaths in and out which will deepen and become slower and more controlled as they relax further. From different accounts many people say they become aware of their pulse and the beating of their heart things that in normal day to day activity are just their body working and they are not acknowledged unless there is a problem, some subjects have reported that this level of awareness of their body function did cause them to feel concerned or at points anxious, but that these feeling soon passed. The change in brain wave activity
Neuroplasticity helps the brain to recover from injury. When a brain activity associated to a given function is hurt, neuroplasticity helps the brain to transfer it to a different location in the brain. Also, Norman Doidge wrote a book about this experience. His book is “The Brain that changes itself: Stories of a Personal Triumph from the Frontiers of Brain Sciences”. In his book Norman Doidge gives examples of people who recovered from brain injury. They have begun to use the functions of their brain and move their body members.
The book The Brain that Changes Itself: Stories of Personal Triumph from the Frontiers of Brain Science, written by Dr. Norman Doidge, provides different intimate experiences from people that received help through neuroplasticity exercises. Each story describes how the brain is able to readjust itself. Brain plasticity can physically modify the brain by uncovering rewarding and tragic experiences. Changes in the brain can also occur as we age. Throughout the reading I learned several knowledgeable facts I did not know before. Some being the transcription and template functions, and the effects memory and learning have on the transformation of the brain over time. Another was Jordan Grafman’s research on the four kinds of plasticity; map expansion, sensory reassignment, compensatory masquerade, and mirror region takeover.
While awake, beta waves are active in the brain. The first stage is known as REM. This is where rapid eye movement occurs. As well, dreams typically occur here. As you begin to fall asleep these beta waves become less prevalent and theta waves start to develop. This occurs in the early stages of sleep. Furthermore, this stage is known as N1 which is a light sleep that usually occurs for about five minutes. During this time body temperature drops and shallow, irregular breathing occurs. The next stage is known as N2. An EEG would show sleep spindles at this point. As time goes on the brain will begin to produce delta waves. These waves are long and slow. They occur in the deepest stages of sleep known as N3. This stage is also responsible for growth hormones being released in the pituitary gland. After N3 the body will begin to wake up on its own. The body will return to it's REM stage where body temperature increases and eyes have movement.
In chapter 3 of the book Connectome: How The Brain’s Wiring Makes Us Who We Are, the author talked about a type of cell in our brain, Neuron. Neurons are round in shapes, they embrace one another, and this is to make it easier for the signals to transfer to one another. Neurons have a long branches attached to their cell body, it is called Neurite. Neurites are crowned with one another closely but they do not touch. This is to make it easier for the Synapse, which is the junction between Neurons, to work better. Synapses are used when two Neurons need to “contact” with each other, however, “communications” at the Synapses can only be between two neurons, and anything more than that would not work.
The various activity levels of the brain are defined as brain waves and divided into four basic groups according to wavelength. Delta waves range between 0-4 Hz, Theta waves range between 4-8 Hz, Alpha waves range between 8-13 Hz and Beta waves are greater than 13 Hz. Alpha waves are typical of states of quiet rest, none particular activity and sometimes when the eyes are closed. Beta waves are typical of states of alertness, attentiveness or active thinking. Beta waves appear also in the REM sleep stage along with Theta waves while the other sleep stages are characterized by Theta and Delta brain activity .
The brains electrical activity is able to be measured with an electroencephalograph (EEG). The EEG measures your brain activity or brain waves. When you are awake and alert you exhibit beta waves which are small and fast, but immediately before sleep and when you are relaxed and allowing your mind to wander you exhibit alpha waves (2).