Respiration in Invertebrates

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UNIVERSITY OF PORT HARCOURT
COLLEGE OF NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES
FACULTY OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY A REPORT

ON RESPIRATION IN INVERTEBRATES

COMPILED & PRESENTED BY
DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY 2012/2013 SESSION

COURSE: FSB201 (CELL BIOLOGY)
COURSE LECTURER: DR. NOUTCHA
DATE : 7TH MARCH, 2013
INTRODUCTION
Respiration is one of the characteristics of ALL LIVING THINGS. In the simplest terms, "respiration" simply means "breathing". But more formally, the term depends on what type of respiration been referred to. Essentially, "respiration" refers to gaseous exchange of unwanted carbon dioxide and much-needed oxygen for the body's use. In direct terms, oxygen is
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The product of this process is energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), by substrate-level phosphorylation, NADH and FADH2
Simplified reaction: C6H12O6 (s) + 6O2 (g) → 6CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (l) + heat
ΔG = -2880 kJ per mole of C6H12O6
The negative ΔG indicates that the reaction can occur spontaneously.
The reducing potential of NADH and FADH2 is converted to more ATP through an electron transport chain with oxygen as the "terminal electron acceptor". Most of the ATP produced by aerobic cellular respiration is made by oxidative phosphorylation. This works by the energy released in the consumption of pyruvate being used to create a chemiosmotic potential by pumping protons across a membrane. This potential is then used to drive ATP synthase and produce ATP from ADP and a phosphate group. Biology textbooks often state that 38 ATP molecules can be made per oxidized glucose molecule during cellular respiration (2 from glycolysis, 2 from the Krebs cycle, and about 34 from the electron transport system). However, this maximum yield is never quite reached due to losses (leaky membranes) as well as the cost of moving pyruvate and ADP into the mitochondria's matrix and current estimates range around 29 to 30 ATP per glucose. Cellular Respiration is split into 4 distinct aspects that occur at different parts of the cell. These are glycolysis, Oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, Kreb’s Cycle and Oxidative phosphorylation.
GLYCOLYSIS
Glycolysis is a metabolic
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