Review Asian 104 Essay

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Review Questions for the Mid-Term Exam
(9th March 2015)
I. Review questions for short-answer questions
1. Briefly characterize the following terms:

a. Hexagram-The I Ching book consists of 64 hexagrams.[2] [3] A hexagram is a figure composed of six stacked horizontal lines (爻 yáo), where each line is either Yang (an unbroken, or solid line), or Yin (broken, an open line with a gap in the center). The hexagram lines are traditionally counted from the bottom up, so the lowest line is considered line one while the top line is line six. Hexagrams are formed by combining the original eight trigrams in different combinations. Each hexagram is accompanied with a description, often cryptic, akin to parables. Each line in every hexagram is also
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'Ren' has been rendered into English in various ways such as: benevolence, man to manness, perfect virtue, human heartedness, and, as in our textbook, humanity. It has been regarded as the defining virtue of a junzi/gentlemen and the ultimate commitment in Confucius' thought. However, Confucius never intends to offer a formal definition of ren; instead, he gives only various answers to questions about ren in different circumstances for students with different temperaments and with varying degrees of understanding.

f. yi (in the Analects)- Yi is another important virtue through which ren is cultivated. Confucius stresses yi as necessary for developing ren.

Unlike li as external rituals and rules of propriety, yi is internal virtue, a moral disposition to do what is right and an ability to recognize what is right; yi functions like a kind of moral sense or intuition regarding action. Like Kant’s conception of good will and duty, what is according to yi unconditional and absolute; some actions must be performed only because they are right, and not because of what they produce. On the other hand, unlike Kant, yi is not something that has nothing to do with inclination, disposition or intuition.

As far as the relation between yi and li is concerned, cultivating yi is carried out through observing li. “The superior person regards righteousness (yi) as the substance of everything.
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