Review for Anthoropology Essay

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Know the approximate time boundary between prehistory and history and what development it is based on. Archaeologists define prehistory as that portion of human history that extends back some 2.5 million years before the time of written documents and archives. History is the study of human experience through the time of written documents, has a much shorter time span. Written records go back to the 5,000 years ago in western Asia.
1. What percentage of human existence has been in prehistoric times?
2. Name the forms of prestate societies. (P.28 Box) Prestate societies are small-scale societies, based on the community, band, or village. They vary greatly in their degrees of political integration and sometimes divided into
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2. The hand ax had about 12 inches of cutting edge. Homo erectus (c. 3000,000 years ago) 3. Mousterian flake tools provided about 30 inches of cutting edge. Neanderthals and contemporaries(c. 100,000 years ago) Name-the Acheulian hand ax (named after the northern French town of Saint Acheul) 4. Upper Paleolithic blade production resulted in up to 30 feet of cutting edge. Homo sapiens (c. 30,000 years ago)
10. Know the names of the most important hominine fossil finds and locations. • Lucy (Australopithecus afarensis) was discovered by Maurice Taieb and Donald Johanson at Hadar in northern Ethiopia. • Lucy’s child (3-year-old A. afarensis) was found at the Dilila are of northeastern Ethiopia. • Skull 1470 was discovered by Richard Leakey in East Turkana. Large brain, round headed cranium. • Fossil of a twelve-year-old boy (Homo ergaster) from the western shore of Lake Turkana, dates to about 1.5 million years ago. (P.72) 頭から下が先に進化する。Homo ergaster has bigger brain than H. erectus, but they did not use tools as well as H. erectus.
11. What are the significant characteristics of Australopithecines, Homo habilis, Homo Erectus/Ergaster, Archaic Homo Sapiens, including Homo Neanderthalensis, and Homo sapiens? • Australopithecines (3 to 2.5 million years ago): was first identified by anatomist Raymond Dart at the Taung site in South Africa in 1925. They were small and gracile primate that displayed both human and apelike features (A.

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