Review of Related Literature

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Research Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation against mosquitoesVirendra K Dua1 , Akhilesh C Pandey1 , Kamaraju Raghavendra2 , Ashish Gupta1 , Trilochan Sharma1 and Aditya P Dash2 1 National Institute of Malaria Research, Field Unit, Sector-III, BHEL, Hardwar 249043, India2 National Institute of Malaria Research, 22 Sham Nath Marg, Delhi 110054, Indiaauthor email corresponding author emailMalaria Journal 2009, 8:124doi:10.1186/1475-2875-8-124The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: Received: | 8 March 2009 | Accepted: | 8 June 2009 | Published: | 8 June 2009 | © 2009 Dua et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an…show more content…
Numerous plant products have been reported either as insecticides for killing larvae or adult mosquitoes or as repellents for mosquito biting and are one of the best alternatives for mosquito control [2,3].Neem trees, (Azadirachta indica) native of India, belonging to family Meliaceae are fast growing evergreen trees ranging in height from 12 – 24 m. They are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including semi-arid and wet- tropical regions [4]. Neem seeds contain approximately 99 biologically active compounds of which azadirachtin, nimbin, nimbidin and nimbolides are major molecules. Many of these derived products have antifeedancy, ovicidal activity, fecundity suppression besides insect growth regulation and repellency against insects [5-10]. Neem products have low toxicity to birds, fish and mammals and are less likely to induce resistance due to their multiple mode of action on insects. In addition to this, insect growth regulatory activity of neem weakens the cuticle defence system of the larvae causing easy penetration of pathogenic organisms into insect system. Azadirachtin, a biologically active compound has been promoted as a new insecticide that is considered more eco- friendly than synthetic insecticides. The pesticidal efficacy, environmental safety
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