Rheumatoid Arthritis : A Progressive Inflammatory Autoimmune Disease

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According to Majithia & Geraci (2007), rheumatoid arthritis is defined as a progressive inflammatory autoimmune disease that produces pain, oedema, redness, warmth and stiffness in the joint and may lead to joint distortion. Moreover, permanent loss of joint function, disability, joint dislocation and fibrous and bones ankylosis are the common complications of Rheumatoid arthritis (Gibofsky, 2012). Rheumatoid arthritis may last from months to lifelong and symptoms might worsen or improve over time (Gibofsky, 2012). The common sites of RA are wrists, hands, knees, ankles, and feet (Choy, 2012). Although the etiology and pathogenesis of RA have yet to be completely known, recent findings suggest a number of factors have been identified as…show more content…
All previous processes lead to widen the joint space (Cooles & Isaacs, 2011). In Next stage, synovial villi become hypertrophic and infiltrated with various types of inflammatory cells (Weisman, 2011). Chronic inflammation of the joint leads to thicken the synovium (Weisman, 2011). In addition, the inflamed synovial villi, known as pannus, creeps over the articular cartilage and infiltrates the joint space leading to erode the underlying bone and cartilage(Cooles & Isaacs, 2011). This leads to narrow the space of the joint (Cooles & Isaacs, 2011). As a result, Fibrotic tissue progressively replaces the pannus and movement of the joint is gradually become restricted (Choy, 2012). Pharmacological treatment of RA: As there is no cure for this medical condition, the pharmacological treatment aims to alleviate the symptoms, avoid joint damage and put the disease into remission (Majithia & Geraci, 2007). Recently, combination of medications is common approach in RA management as many of the medications are not effective as if used as monotherapy (Majithia & Geraci, 2007). The common RA medications are: NSAID’s: Although this type of medications is widely used as first line drug, it does not appear change natural history of the disease. NSAID’s are used to reduce joint pain, swelling and stiffness which lead to improve joint function (Majithia & Geraci, 2007). The efficiency of these medications
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