IC02 Causes and spread of infection The difference between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites are: Viruses are coated genetic material that invade cells and use the cell's apparatus for reproduction. Bacteria are single celled organisms. Some classify them as a separate (fourth) kingdom on the tree of life. Fungi are multi-celled organisms that form
The temperatures tested were 4°C, 30 °C, and 60°C. The optimal growth and prodigiosin production
Although fungi are distributed worldwide, the distribution of a specific species is limited by temperature and moisture conditions of an area coupled with the available food supply. The best temperature for most fungi to thrive is from 68° to 86°F (20° to 30°C). Some types of fungi, however, do perfectly well at tem- peratures as high as 120°F (48°C), while a fairly large number of them do well at freezing temperatures, 32°F (0°C) or below.
Methods The experiment took place in a laboratory setting, and the first step was obtaining sixty individual Daphnia magna (that were neither adults nor tiny offspring) from a large tank in the lab. These individuals were equally divided into three groups; low density, medium density, and high density. The twenty Daphnia assigned to the low density group were split into four groups of five and pipetted into one of four tubes filled with 10mL of Chlamydomonas algae. The twenty Daphnia assigned to the medium density group were split into two groups of ten and placed into one of two tubes also filled up to 10mL with Chlamydomonas. The final twenty Daphnia were all placed into a single tube filled with 10mL of the algae. In order to avoid suffocation-related
Within our oceans, lies an intriguing, vital bacterium. That bacterium is called Prochlorococcus Marinus. P. Marinus is a small cyanobacterium cell. This means that the bacterium is able to thrive on sunlight and produce oxygen as a result. Specifically, these organisms are found within the euphotic zones of tropical oceans. This is how the bacterium is able to access sunlight and carbon dioxide and convert it into oxygen. These organisms are very successful because they are extremophiles. This means that P. marinus can survive in extreme conditions. Generally, Prochlorococcus is found to be within a temperate range of 10-33 °C. Some strains of P. marinus are able to thrive in depths with low light.
What are some teks I can use to grow Panaeolus cyanescens? What is the best substrate to use for Panaeolus cyanescens? Will they fruit directly from rye grain? What determines the size of the Panaeolus mushrooms? How do I proceed after the substrate is colonized? Do Panaeolus cyanescens also fruit on straw? Is there a need to add a buffer to the casing mixture? Can they grown successfully using the PF-Tek method? Do Panaeolus cyanescens need a casing layer? What kind of environment do Panaeolus cyanescens like? Is Panaeolus cyanescens and Psilocybe cyanescens the same mushroom? How do I clone a Panaeolus cyanescens like slightly lower vegetative temps. but not LOW. The range of temps in my home, have grown mexicana, tampanensis, cubensis, and the Cops. Any subtropical shroom will produce in a relatively broad range of temps.
Dear Dr. Brainiac, I have completed the testing on the organism you provided to me that was obtained from one of your patients, patient #17. Upon culturing the specimen and conducting the gram staining procedure, I was able to determine the microorganism is a Gram-negative rod shaped organism. The
The organism studied in these experiments was the Spinacia oleracea that was obtained from a local grocery store in Lincoln Nebraska. One experiment that was conducted was used to determine the rate of oxygen production of Spinacia oleracea in the dark. Another experiment conducted was used to determine the effect of light intensity on the net photosynthetic rate of a Spinacia oleracea. The effect of light wavelength on the net photosynthetic rate of a Spinacia oleracea was also conducted and observed. The last experiment conducted was conducted to identify the pigments in Spinacia oleracea in order to determine its chloroplast chromatography.
• A ubiquitous soil fungus, the optimum soil temperature for root infection is 30°C or above but infection through the seed can occur at temperatures as low as 14°C, although it grow optimally at 28°C .
Dinoflagellates are eukaryotic microorganisms that are commonly found in marine environments. They are a large group of flagellate protists that are also identified as algae. Most dinoflagellates possess plastids, a double membrane organelle that stores pigments used in photosynthesis [1, 2]. However, some dinoflagellates only acquire these temporarily by digesting food algae . A large portion of dinoflagellates are mixotrophic, phagotrophy with photosynthesis . There are roughly 2,000 species of dinoflagellates living and more than 1,700 of them live in marine environments .
In colder climates plants need to have a higher amount of unsaturated fats to keep the cell membrane from freezing solid. If the plants in cold climates only had saturated fats their cell membrane would freeze solid. This would not allow any important substances to enter or leave the cell membrane, and the
All three fungi, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Pycnoporus sanguineus and Trichoderma sp. were grown in three different type of media MEA, PDA and GYMP under conditions of pH 5.5 and temperature of 27. Based on the graphs, Pleurotus pulmonarius grew faster in the medium of MEA followed by GYMP and PDA. Pycnoporus
To determine if excessive nutrients is the reason for algal growth, take water from a water source that is nutrient rich, and then take water from a water source that has low/average nutrient levels. If the water that is nutrient rich produces algae then nutrient richness could be the effect of algal growth. To test if high temperature water is the reason for the rapid algal growth, take two samples of water(one from high temperature and one from low) then compare the results to see which temperature water produces more algal growth. Lastly, you can compare the turbidity levels, which is the presence of matter and particles. You can compare how turbidity levels affect algal growth.
The use of microalgae in carbon-neutral biofuel production is a promising technology for the sustainable diversification of energy resources and fuels (US DOE, 2010). Despite the popularity of biofuels from other agricultural products, these biomass sources are inferior to algae in terms of productivity, reliability, sustainability, and sheer magnitude of yield (Wigmosta, et al., 2011). According to National Research Council, an assessment of land requirements for algae cultivation that accounts for climatic conditions; fresh water, inland and coastal saline water, and wastewater resources; CO2 abundance and sources; and land availability is needed to inform the potential output of algal biofuels that could be produced economically in the
Abstract To improve the properties of microalgae as sources for biodiesel production, Nannochloropsis oceanica CCAP 849/10 was cultured in f/2 media supplemented with five different forms of nitrogen (NH4HCO3, (NH4)2SO4, NaNO3, NH4NO3 and Urea, 0.88 mmol N l−1). The growth, total lipid content, fatty acid profiles of the microalga were assayed after 15 days of cultivation. The results indicated that the growth based on cell number of N. oceanicawas lowest in medium with ammonium nitrate and increased significantly in medium with ammonium carbonate. The microalgae treated with ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate had the highest total lipid contents, which were 90 and 87 %, respectively. The fatty acid profiles of the microalgawas significantly different.The major fatty acids incultures supplemented with ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and urea, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C20:5 and C22:6 were detected. However in culture supplemented with sodium nitrate, C16:1 had very small peak.