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IMPLEMENTATION ANALYSIS The full policy process is often described by the following steps: 1) problem definition 2) alternative generation 3) analysis of alternatives 4) policy adoption 5) policy implementation 6) policy evaluation While this course has focused on the first three steps, the last three steps are equally important. A thorough policy analysis will include some consideration of policy implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. The policy analyst can sketch out an implementation plan for the most highly ranked alternative(s) that considers: 1) relevant actors and their interests 2) required resources and who might provide them 3) facilitators and barriers likely to be encountered 4) reasonable time frame…show more content…
The policy was implemented (uniforms were adopted) but the expected change did not occur. The theory that violence occurs due to style of dress is wrong. There must be some other cause of school violence, which would require a different policy to address. An implementation failure occurs when the policy is not implemented as intended. For example, the school may adopt a uniform policy, but the majority of the students ignore it. The level of violence in the school does not change. We still do not know whether adopting school uniforms would lower the level of violence in the schools; we only know that uniforms were not adopted. FORMATIVE EVALUATION If adequate monitoring processes are in effect, it should be fairly easy to detect whether a policy has been implemented as intended. This type of policy monitoring has been referred to as formative evaluation. Formative evaluation documents and analyzes how a policy is implemented, with the objective of making improvements as the implementation process unfolds. EVALUATION DESIGN Policy evaluation applies accepted social science research methods to public programs. The same research designs used in laboratory experiments are not always practicable in the field, but the same principles can guide the planning and execution of policy evaluation. Before-and-After Evaluation: a policy is evaluated for the changes it has produced since its implementation; the situation is controlled to
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