Risk Management

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Each question is worth 10 points 1. Define the following terms a. Risk – the probability of a negative/harmful effect from a hazard or hazardous situation or the potential for the recognition of undesirable adverse consequences from future events.

b. Risk Assessment – an examination and determination of the kind and magnitude of a hazard caused by an agent, where a particular group of receptors have been or may be exposed to the agent, and the present or potential future health risk that exists due to the agent. It is the combination of exposure assessment, health, and environmental effect data to estimate risks to human or environmental target organisms that may result from exposure to various hazardous substances.
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Describe the importance of Risk Assessment in the USEPA’s Air Toxics Program.
Risk assessments are very important and may be considered the foundation of the EPA’s air toxics program. The air toxic program exists to estimate the risk of cancer and other serious health effects for breathing air toxics in order to inform both national and more localized efforts to identify and prioritize air toxics. These toxins come from a variety of sources which include: indoor air, point sources, area sources, and mobile sources. The evaluation of these sources/toxins is an ever ongoing process and it is critical that the EPA use well established procedures (risk assessments) during the evaluation process. With the use of risk assessments the EPA can determine a myriad of factors concerning air toxins included: hazard identification, exposed populations, toxicity, sources, routes and duration of exposure, ecological effects, mitigation feasibility and options, magnitude and urgency, risk comparisons and ranking, etc. It gives the EPA a systematic way to determine if a potential toxin is a risk above de minimis levels so regulatory action as well as effective decision making and resource management can be conducted concerning air toxins.

5. Compare and contrast acute vs. chronic effects.
Acute effects are characterized by the sudden onset of symptoms that last a short period of time; generally less than 24 hours. Acute effects

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