Cerebrovascular Accident- condition in which brain tissue is deprived of blood supply. The most common stroke symptoms are:
Cerebral vascular accident or a stroke is the destruction of brain substance, resulting from thrombosis, intracranial hemorrhage, or embolism, which causes vascular insufficiency. In addition, it is an area of the brain denied blood and oxygen that is required and damage is done to a part of the cells. The effect of the patient depends upon where the damage occurs and the severity of the stroke.
Stroke is a result of improper blood circulation in the brain. It is the major reason for disability and death worldwide.
A stroke is a type of cardiovascular disease that affects the cerebral arteries, those blood vessels that carry blood to the brain. A stroke occurs when one of those blood vessels in the brain is obstructed or ruptures flooding the brain with blood. Depriving blood and oxygen to the brain results in those immediate cells death, causing the brain not to function properly. Once parts of the brain stop functioning, it can directly affect the areas of the body controlled (1).
When an artery in the brain is block (ie; TIA) open collateral vessels can allow blood to
Cerebrovascular disease, also known as vascular dementia, is the second to most common form of dementia. It is characterized by blood vessels changing over time in the cerebrum (brain). The most common reason for vascular dementia is due to aging of the body; but it is also tied to cholesterol and the state of the walls of the blood vessels. Too much cholesterol and overall poor health of blood vessels can cause a thickness in the lining of the vessel walls, therefore cutting off some of the blood flow to the brain.
Cerebrovascular accidents, or strokes, will lead to brain damage that affects the functioning of executive function, memory, language, visuospatial performance and emotional states. Corresponding vertebral arteries and carotid arteries provide blood to the brain from the heart that the carotid arteries are internal and external sections of the thyroid cartilage. Where the optic nerve rests the internal artery distributes into the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The vertebral arteries arise through the spinal vertebrae and meet the lower pons to form the basilar artery. The brain receives 15% to 20% of the oxygenated blood from the heart and can only endure fleeting interruptions of blood flow before neural operations
As mentioned above, strokes are pathophysiological changes. Ischemia which accounts for 87% of all strokes is a decrease or absent circulating blood which deprives neurons of necessary substrates. As there is no storage of glucose in the brain it leaves no opportunity for the chief ingredient for energy substrate and is incapable of anaerobic metabolism (Shah, MD, n.d.). Ischemia is a medical condition diagnosed when tissues do not have a sufficient oxygen supply, therefor resulting in a decrease in ATP energy, leading to necrosis of tissue. Decreased oxygen supply to tissue (ischemia) is caused by a blockage in an artery mainly from an embolism. An embolism is the breakage of an atherosclerosis formed in any coronary arteries. This floats freely in the blood stream, which eventually may plug a major artery in the brain (stroke), heart (MI) or lungs (lung failure). A thrombus occurs when an already
There are two major branches of strokes: those caused by narrowing or blockage of the arteries leading towards the brain, and those caused by blood vessel leaking or rupturing in the brain. Ischemic strokes account for approximately 87% of Stroke cases, which reduces the blood flow to the brain. About half of the Ischemic strokes are caused by clotting in small or large arteries, a smaller portion are caused by
A CVA occurs when a part of the brain is damaged or destroyed due to an interruption of blood flow to the area resulting in brain cell death (Martini, Nath & Bartholomew 2015 pp. 496-470).There are two main types of a CVA, Ischaemic stroke and Haemorrhagic stroke (AIHW 2013). The most common cause of stroke is ischaemic, which can be caused by embolism/thrombosis (AIHW 2013). An embolism/thrombosis occurs when there is a clot in an artery or vein, which stops blood flow to the brain (AIHW 2013). A haemorrhagic stroke is when an artery ruptures and bleeds into the surrounding brain tissue (AIHW 2013). This form of stroke occurs when blood pools and forms a clot therefore putting pressure on the area of the brain depriving it of oxygen and nutrients it needs to remain healthy (AIHW 2013).
Correspondingly, there are two pathways that transports blood to the brain called internal carotid artery and vertebral artery. The internal carotid artery has three layers call the tunica adventitia, tunica media, and tunica intima. Tunica intima is made up of smooth muscle cells and elastin. The basilar artery forms and it branches out to the posterior cerebral arteries. The posterior cerebral arteries form the internal carotid arteries and when they connect they make cerebral arterial circle ( circle of willis). The middle cerebral arteries branch out two separate arteries called the anterior cerebral arteries. Each of these arteries are the force that direct the blood flow to the brain. There are three tiny vascular systems that work together to profuse the deep brain. Which are the pial, subependymal, and lenticulostriate arteries. The small area of white matter that depends on blood flow is called the subcortical “shed water” area. The subcortical is more prone than other areas of the brain to have ischemia. The leading cause of ischemia is the fibrin builds up and this cause a narrowing of the lumen. Which does not allow the flow of red blood cells and deprives the white matter of tissue of oxygen. The tissue then losses density and produces white matter lesions. The neurons become demyelinated which leads to loss of cognitive ability.
Stroke also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), cerebrovascular insult (CVI), or a brain attack. A brain attack is the loss of brain function by the cause of disturbance in the blood supply to the brain. This disturbance occurs due to either one of two causes which are ischemia (lack of blood flow) or a hemorrhage (high increase of blood flow directly into brain; parenchyma or into the subarachnoid space which surrounds the brain with tissue). Ischemia is a formation by a blood clot that is inside of a blood vessel located in the circulatory system called thrombosis or arterial embolism; which is a rapid interruption in the supply of blood flow to an organ or body part due to a clogged artery blocking the blood flow. Thrombosis is a
The topic assigned to me for the health paper is cerebrovascular disease, which is a stroke. Cerebrovascular is really two words combined. Cerebro is the largest part in the brain and vascular is termed as veins and arteries. From those two terms, one can interpret that this disease has to deal with the blood flow that goes on in the brain. According to the Association of Neurological surgeons, cerebrovascular disease is defined as the any disorder that is in the brain is either permanently or temporarily affected by bleeding and even by ischemia (AANS, 2005). It states, “ Cerebrovascular disease includes stroke, carotid stenosis, vertebral stenosis and intracranial stenosis, aneurysms, and vascular malformations” (AANS, 2005). When this
Stroke previously known as Cerebrovascular accident is well-defined as ‘an abrupt cessation of cerebral circulation in one or more of the blood vessels distributing the brain. Due to the interruption or diminish of oxygen supply causes serious damage or necrosis in the brain tissues (Jauch, Kissella & Stettler, 2005). There is a presence of one or more symptoms such as weakness or numbness or paralysis of the face, arm or leg, difficulty speaking or swallowing, dizziness, loss of balance, loss of vision, sudden blurring or decreased vision in one or both eyes and headache. Stoke is categorised into two types, Ischaemic and haemorrhagic
The second most common example of CVD is carotid artery disease, which affects the carotid arteries. The carotid arteries supply blood to your brain where you can have the symptom of a stroke. These symptoms may include; sudden weakness, confusion, trouble speaking or understanding speech, trouble seeing in one or both eyes, loss of consciousness and many more.