Role Of Laparoscopic, Robotic Assisted And Open Surgery Essay

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Role of laparoscopic, robotic assisted and open surgery in management of stones. Introduction: Humans are suffering from the urolithiasis from time before the recorded history. Urolithiasis have been found in the Egyptian mummy dating 4800BC(1).Surgery for urolithiasis was done in ancient Greek and Roman civilizations but these surgeries were mainly focused as treatment for complications of stone diseases like pyonephrosis or fistulae. Ingalls performed first elective nephrolithotomy in 1872 in United States of America and Morris performed first elective nephrolithotomy in England in 1880(2). In past 30 years the management of urolithiasis has undergone dramatic change. This change has been due to development of newer technique for treatment of urolithiasis which included development of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), Semirigid and later flexible ureteroscopy, Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL).Over the period of past 30 years the technology in above modalities underwent further refinement and expertise in using these endourological interventions in management of stones increased exponentially. At the same time the use of open surgical approach for management of urolithiasis decreased and naturally the expertise of open surgeries for management of urolithiasis has also decreased. Newer generation of urologist is having lesser exposure to open surgical technique for urolithiasis. So today’s urologist are having higher threshold for these open approach. However it is a

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