Rumination, Hope and Depression

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Depression is one of the most common mental health problems encountered by adult men and women (Kessler, Chiu, Demler, & Walters, 2005; World Health Organisation [WHO], 2009). Affecting approximately 121 million individuals worldwide, depression is within the top five leading causes of disease and disability (WHO, 2009). Andrade et al. (2003) indicated that the prevalence of depression among adults worldwide ranged between 1.2% and 10% among 10 different countries, with seven of the ten countries clustered between the ranges of 3.5% to 5.9%. Within Australia, 12-month prevalence rates for adults (16-85 years) for a depressive episode was 4.4% and for dysthymia was 1.3%, with depressive disorders accounting for 20.4% of all mental health…show more content…
Those that do not meet diagnostic criteria for depressive disorders but have subthreshold depression can still experience considerable psychological suffering (Cuijpers, de Graaf, & van Dorsselaer, 2004; Rapaport et al., 2002), and harmful implications for quality of life (Goldney, Fisher, Grande, &Taylor 2004; Gotlib, Lewinsohn, Seeley, 1995).
Subthreshold depression has been characterised as the presence of depressive symptoms occurring in individuals who do not meet diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder or Dysthymic Disorder (APA, 2000; Cuijpers & Smit, 2004; Kessler, Zhao, Blazer, & Swartz, 1997; Judd, Rapaport, Paulus, & Brown, 1994). Subthreshold depression can be defined as scoring above cut-off scores on self-rating depression scales or meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for Minor Depression (Cuijpers & Smit, 2004). Symptoms of subthreshold depression can impact on an individual’s emotions (dysphoria and guilt), cognitions (worry, self-criticism, self-blame), behaviours (withdrawal from social functioning, anhedonia) and physical wellbeing (lethargy, changes in weight) (APA, 2000).
Research has found that
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