SLE Essay

789 WordsNov 30, 20174 Pages
The most common visceral organ that is affected in SLE is the kidneys; even though approximately 50% of SLE patients develop clear manifestations of renal disease, the vast majority of the patients have some degree of renal involvement as demonstrated by biopsy studies [29]. The most common devastating symptom of SLE is lupus nephritis [30]. SLE patients also have neurological manifestations that have been reported in 25-75% of patients and can involve all parts of the nervous system [31]. These include headaches, cognitive deficits, psychosis, depression, and epileptic seizures [32]. Pleurisy with pleuritic chest pain with or without pleural effusions is the most common feature of pulmonary involvement in SLE [33]. Cardiac…show more content…
Although these criteria were developed for classification, they are extensively used for diagnosis of patients. These criteria include the most important manifestations of SLE, namely mucocutaneous, articular, serosal, nephrologic, neurologic, hematologic, and immunologic. The patient must fulfill at least 4 of the 11 ACR criteria (listed in Table 1) to be diagnosed as an SLE patient. The criteria must be fulfilled at any time in the patient's history and symptoms may occur simultaneously or in succession [38, 39]. In 2012, the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) had published new classification criteria in which the patient must present with at least 4 of 17 SLICC classification criteria (listed in Table 2), including at least one clinical and one immunologic criterion. Nonetheless, SLICC has not been extensively used in studies to determine the incidence of SLE [2, 40]. Due to the complexity of SLE and its diversity in immunological and clinical manifestations, the assessment of the disease activity poses a challenge. Therefore numerous clinical indices have been developed for the assessment of the activity of the disease due to the absence of single biomarker that adequately reflects the activity of SLE. There are two main types of activity measures in SLE. The European Consensus Lupus Activity Measurements (ECLAM), Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) are examples of
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