STUDY GUIDE: EXAM 4 Essay

1797 WordsApr 4, 20148 Pages
Chapter 29, pp. 1091-1141; Chapter 30, pp. 1142-1208; Chapter 31, pp. 1209-1241; Chapter 32, pp. 1242-1265; Chapter 33, pp. 1266-1309; Chapter 34, pp. 1310-1343 Chapter 26: Altetations of Erythrocyte Function, pp. 989 1. Anemia, pp. 989. Anemia is a areduction in the total number of erythrocytes in the circulating blood or a decrease in the quality or quantity of hemoglobin. Anemias commonly result from (1) impaired erythrocyte production, (2) blood loss (acute or chronic), (3)increase erythrocyte destruction, or (4) a combination of these three. sThe fundamental physiologic manifestation of anemia is a reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood resulting in tissue hypoxia. Chapter 29: Structure & Function of the…show more content…
Both atria simultaneously fill with blood. Then the bicuspid and the tricuspid valves open, also simultaneously, to allow blood to flow into the ventricles. As the blood collects in the ventricles, they contract, ejecting blood into the lungs and the body. Meanwhile, the atria relax and again fill with blood. 5. Conduction, pp.1099-1103. Conduction system of the heart. Specialized cardiac muscle cells in the wall of the heart rapidly conduct an electrical impulse throughout the myocardium. The signal is initiated by the SA node (pacemaker) and spreads to the rest of the atrial myocardium and to the AV node. The AV node then initiates a signal that is conducted throught the ventricular myocardium by way of the AV bundle (of His) and Purkinje fibers. Chapter 30: Alterations of Cardiovascular Function, pp. 1142-1208. 6. Atherosclerosis, pp.1157. is a form of arteriosclerosis in which thickening and hardening of the vessel are caused by the accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages w/I the arterial wall, which leads to the formation of a lesion called a plaque. It is not a single disease but rather a pathologic process that can affect vascular syustemns throughtout the body, resulting in ischemic syndromes that can vary widely in their severity and clinical manisfestations. It is the leading contributor to coronary artery and cerebrocascular disease. Athrosclerosis is an inflammatory disease, the lesions progress from endothelial injury and dysfunction
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