Safe Water with Adequate Sanitation

962 Words4 Pages
1- Introduction
Accessing safe water with adequate sanitation has been a crucial problem for billions of people around the world (1). Most of them are in the developing countries and this problem seems to increase in the following years (2). One of the renewable sources of freshwater which has sufficient sanitation is rainfall. Globally precipitation generates supply of 40000 to 45000 km3 per year (3). However, there is not a uniform rainfall for different areas of the world. Developed countries are mostly located in the temperate or tepid latitudes, hence they have more precipitation. On the other hand, developing countries have mostly arid and semi-arid climates which they lack in the sufficient rainfall. Imbalance between water needs and its resources has been a crucial issue for these countries. It has been expected that by the year 2025, 34 countries most of them developing nations will experience water scarcity (2) (3). This situation is more critical in the North Africa and in the Middle East (4).
In addition to the scarcity of fresh water which is a major concern, nowadays for both developed and developing countries, the quality of water has been deteriorated due to the pollution, particularly in the developing nations. The major causes of the contaminated water resources are the inadequate wastewater treatment, non-optimized landfill construction, leaking from sewage systems, and unauthorized agricultural, municipal and industrial wastewater discharge into aquatic
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